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5.1 Introduction to key concepts

Before I go any further I will establish the meaning of some of the key concepts that you will encounter throughout this unit.

The key concepts elaborated in this unit are:

  • inventor

  • invention

  • design

  • product champion

  • entrepreneur

  • improver

  • innovation

  • dominant design

  • robust design

  • lean design

  • radical
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9 The term ‘religion’: A concluding comment

I hope that this more extended study of religion in context has been interesting in itself and that you have glimpsed something of the richness of Hinduism. We have made this brief study of Hinduism also to put to work some of the principles in the study of religion that we met earlier in this unit. I want finally to draw some threads together by considering more generally the problems and pitfalls of using the concept of ‘religion’ in a cross-cultural study.

Applying what we had di
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5.1 Relativising the Holocaust?

In the wake of the Soviet armies during 1944–45 came police units. In Poland the communist Office of State Security (Urzad Bezpieczerstwa Publicznego, UB) refilled former Nazi camps and prisons with civilians, many of whom were Germans innocent of any offence other than that of being German. Somewhere between 60,000 and 80,000 died as a result of UB behaviour in the camps and prisons; victims were beaten, tortured, starved, killed. One of the only researched UB units is that which op
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2.2 Imperium as power: Augustus and the beginning of the empire

The basic meaning of the Latin term imperium was ‘command’ and the term included the authority that lay behind the mandate. During the long period in which Rome was a republic, imperium signified the power attached to the office of the leading elected magistrates of the city, notably the two annual consuls and the lower-ranking praetors. It was the consuls who commanded the armies and went to the provinces assigned them by the senate. Praetors too came to share a military fu
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2.7.4 Houses

In the case of the houses it is more difficult to differentiate clearly between ‘Roman’ and ‘African’ if we accept that the atrium-peristyle house is not the only form of dwelling we can identify as typically Roman. Nevertheless, it seems that the houses in Africa do represent a fusion of elements – African, Roman and Hellenistic – suggesting that model 4 might be most appropriate in the case of the houses at Bulla Regia. They combine a Roman symmetry with a Hellenistic peristyle
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Introduction

There is a widespread perception in the West that we live in a secular age, an age in which religion is at best an optional extra, if not a false delusion completely out of place. However, religion still arouses passion and causes controversy; it controls and transforms lives. An informed understanding of the contemporary world thus requires an appreciation of the role of religion in shaping ideas, world-views and actions that have an impact on the social as well as on the personal life of th
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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should be able to:

  • list the skills and knowledge needed to conduct full and fair recruitment and selection, and be able to undertake it systematically.


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9 Summary

The project brief is a summary of previous discussions and research. If there is earlier documentation, the project brief can refer to these documents and summarise the key points rather than repeat everything. For example, there may have been previous documentation outlining the business case for the project so that commitment could be gained in earlier stages of the decision-making process. Similarly, there may be documentation that outlines the background to the project and the reasons for
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1.6.2 Alerts

Online bookshops and some of the major search engines offer ‘Alerts’ services. These work by allowing you to set up a profile once you have registered on their site, and when there are items meeting your criteria you receive an email. The good thing about alerts is that you don’t have to do anything once you have set up your profile. The downside, particularly with alerts services from the search engines, is that given the extent to which internet traffic is on the increase whether new
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1.6.1 Introduction

The process of keeping up-to-date in your chosen subject area is useful for your studies and afterwards, for your own personal satisfaction, or perhaps in your career as part of your continuing professional development.

There are a great many tools available that make it quite easy to keep yourself up to date. You can set them up so that the information comes to you, rather than you having to go out on the web looking for it. Over the next few pages, you will be experimenting with some
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4.2 Levels of explanation

The distinction between the natural and the social is not the only significant one. Even the social orientation in constructions of social problems is complicated by different sorts of emphasis. The growth of social science since the late nineteenth century has ensured that a variety of competing theories, disciplines and perspectives are available to us in our attempt to make sense of social problems. Such theories have made their way into the realm of everyday or common-sense constructions
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Objectives for Section 2

After studying this section you should be able to do the following.

  • Recognise and use the terminology: real number; set; element or member of a set; empty set; length of a sequence; empty sequence, ordered pair, n-tuple, Cartesian product.

  • Appreciate that use of precise notation such as the use of different types of bracket conveys important information when using formal notation. For example, square brackets [ and ] d
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2.6 Associations: tuples and Cartesian products

Consider an item of shopping that is weighed at the supermarket checkout, such as 335 grams of walnuts. This item of shopping has two features: the type of item purchased (walnuts), and the weight of that item (335 grams). To record a weighed item of shopping we need to note both these features. This can be done using an ordered pair: (“WALNUTS”, 335).

The first item in this ordered pair gives the type of item purchased. Let WeighedItems be the set of items stocked by the sup
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4.12 Sound and music

Second only to vision, we rely on sound. Music delights us, noises warn us of impending danger, and communication through speech is at the centre of our human lives. We have countless reasons for wanting computers to reach out and take sounds across the boundary.

Sound is another analogue feature of the world. If you cry out, hit a piano key or drop a plate, then you set particles of air shaking – and any ears in the vicinity will interpret this tremor as sound. At first glance, the p
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4.8 Interlude – diagrams

Some types of visual information can be represented more economically than in a bitmap. Consider the rather pointless little diagram shown in Figure 21.


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2.4.3 Exchange

Being able to link computers into networks has enormously boosted their capabilities. Data can now be sent between any two computers, maybe thousands of miles apart, at the speed of light. For example, I can share the digital photo stored on my computer with people all over the world almost instantaneously, simply by sending the image to them as an email attachment. Or I can go further and post the image to a website on the internet, where it will be publicly available for any suitably equipp
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Acknowledgements

All materials included in this unit are derived from content originated at the Open University.

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence

1. Join the 200,000 students cur
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8.5 The exclusive-OR operation

The exclusive-OR operation (usually abbreviated to XOR, pronounced ‘ex-or’) combines two binary words, bit by bit, according to the rules:

  • 0 XOR 0 = 0

  • 0 XOR 1 = 1

  • 1 XOR 0 = 1

  • 1 XOR 1 = 0

In other words, the result is 1 when either bit is 1 but not when both bits are 1 or both bits are 0, or the result is 1 when the two bits are different and 0 when they are the sam
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8.3 The AND operation

The AND operation combines two binary words bit by bit according to the rules

  • 0 AND 0 = 0

  • 0 AND 1 = 0

  • 1 AND 0 = 0

  • 1 AND 1 = 1

In other words, only when both bits are 1 is the result 1. You may find it helpful to think of it this way: when one bit is one and the other bit is 1 the result is 1.

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5.4 Set-up, maintenance and power requirements

Issues for set-up and maintenance include:

  • Cost (what are the costs of setting up and maintaining the technology?)

  • Availability of components (are components readily available?)

  • Interoperability (will devices from different vendors work together?)

  • Continuity of supply (will components still be available for a reasonable period in the future?)

Because of its greater range and complexit
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