4.4.2 Mapping across multiple communities of practice

In introducing the core concepts, we highlighted the perspective that ‘what counts’ as valuable knowledge is unavoidably shaped by the communities of practice to which the ‘publisher’ and ‘consumer’ belong. One makes situated judgements regarding the relevance of a new piece of information for oneself and others, and how to store or share it appropriately. One geographical metaphor conjured up by this perspective is that of ‘islands’ of local coheren
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3.1 A knowledge management technology framework

In the introduction to a book on knowledge management technologies, Borghoff and Pareschi (1998) described a framework for organisational memory that has been developed within Xerox to promote understanding of the roles and interplay between different technologies (Figure 4).

Figure 4
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2.3.1 From tacit pre-understanding to symbolic representation

This section reflects many of the critiques that have been made of efforts to apply technology to knowledge work without taking seriously the differences between human and artificial knowledge representations. Stahl (1993a,b) has presented an informative analysis of the transformation of knowledge from tacit to explicit to formally codified representations in computer-interpretable form, emphasising the centrality of interpretation situated in the workplace (Figure 2).

Stahl also seeks
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Introduction

Knowledge technologies embody formal models of how the world works. If well designed, these models can relieve people of mundane activities and free them up to concentrate on what they do best. At their best, knowledge technologies can detect patterns in information which are too complex for humans to detect, or which they do not have time to detect, and can deliver this information to the right people, at the right time, in the right form for interpretation. This unit looks at the cor
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Sneaking Up On Sneakers
This activity explores why different types of sneakers are used in a variety of common sports. It connects how engineers analyze design needs in sneakers and everyday items. The goal is for students to understand the basics of engineering associated with the design of different types of athletic shoes. Sneakers are one of the most commonly worn shoes in our American culture. They provide comfortable support for our feet as we go about our active lives as students, athletes, educators, and engine
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Introduction

The unit explores what it means to become a critical social work practitioner by using a series of activities and readings to guide you through some new and important concepts. An understanding of ‘critical perspectives’ will help you take a positive and constructive approach to the challenging problems that arise in social work practice.

You will be introduced to a critical understanding of the nature and boundaries of personal and professional discretion and judgement in the
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3.5 Meaning and language-based methods

In recent years many psychologists have become interested in language as an important human ‘product’ (the symbolic data described in Section 2.3 above). There are various ways in which psychologists analyse conversations, data from interviews and written texts. One of the most popular methods is content analysis, which involves counting up the prevalence and sequencing of certain words, sentences, expressions, metap
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2.3 A brief look at different kinds of data

For a long time there has been a very important argument about what are the ‘legitimate data’ of psychology – what can and should be used as evidence. We have already seen that, from the very beginnings of psychology as a formal discipline, psychologists have used experimental methods, observations and introspection. In one form or another these methods continue to be central to psychology. The experimental method, adapted from traditional science, has most consistently been consid
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1.5 Summary

  • In many societies and cultures psychology is now a very visible part of everyday life.

  • This unit aims to increase your knowledge of psychology and provide you with the tools to think about psychological issues.

  • In many countries psychology has an impact on policy, practice and culture in general.

  • Psychological research and knowledge may sometimes be developed from common sense, but, as a discipline, psychol
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La estructura y el lenguaje de los cuentos
This unit is designed to develop your knowledge and understanding of Spanish-speaking societies and cultures and extend the practical skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing. You will examine the world of Spanish and Latin-American art and explore the difference between art and craft.
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Arte y cultura popular
This unit is designed to develop your knowledge and understanding of Spanish-speaking societies and cultures and extend the practical skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing. You will examine the world of Spanish and Latin-American art and explore the difference between art and craft.
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4.14 Changing fatherhood identities
Interpersonal communication in health and social care services is by its nature diverse. As a consequence, achieving good or effective communication – whether between service providers and service users, or among those working in a service – means taking account of diversity, rather than assuming that every interaction will be the same. This unit explores the ways in which difference and diversity impact on the nature of communication in health and social care services.
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References

Alexander, A. and Morrison, M. A. (1995) ‘Electric toyland and the structures of power: an analysis of critical studies on children as consumers’, Critical Studies in Mass Communications, vol. 12, pp. 344–53.
Bandura, A. (1965) ‘Influence of models’ reinforcement contingencies on the acquisition of imitative responses’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 1, pp. 589
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Alcoa CEO-Growth Follows Mideast Unrest
Mar. 1 - During the Reuters 2011 Future Face of Finance Summit, Alcoa CEO Klaus Kleinfeld says the company's expansion in Saudi Arabia will create jobs in a region that desperately needs them.
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Two fighter jets collide midair
Two Sri Lankan Air Force fighter jets collide midair near Colombo, killing one pilot and destroying both aircraft.
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McKinsey Chief-U.S., European Growth Lags
Mar. 1 - Global Managing Director of McKinsey & Co. Dominic Barton says China's economy is moving from investment-based growth to consumption-based growth, while Europe and the U.S. lag behind.
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Bidder sure of Nan Shan approval
Consortium member bidding for AIG's Taiwan life insurer, Nan Shan, confident of regulator approval; Ruentex Development's shareholders approve $2.2 billion deal.
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Carbon leakage: EU cap-and-trade rules could do more harm than good
Despite its good intentions, the next phase of EU emissions trading scheme (to be implemented in 2013) could end up doing more harm than good, both to the global environment and to European industries that must comply with the rules, says David Drake, a PhD candidate in Technology and Operations Management at INSEAD.
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Learning outcomes

After you have studied this unit you should be able to:

  • describe the key features of behaviourist, social learning, constructivist and social constructivist theories of development;

  • evaluate critically these four theories;

  • illustrate their application to practical issues in child development.

Witness: China, India face off on the 'roof of the world'
July 24 - After years of neglect, India is fortifying its contested Himalayan border with China. Reuters' Frank Jack Daniel explains why the presence of the Tawang monastery makes this area such a hot spot.
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