Steps still being taken to undo damage of America's Nuremberg
The year 1947 was a watershed for medical ethics and medical care. Fifty years ago, the Nuremberg Code, created in response to the atrocities of Nazi medicine, called for the informed consent of participants in human research. That same year, penicillin was recognized as the standard of care for syphilis. Researchers from the U.S. Public Health Service failed to connect these two milestones. They continued to conduct a long-running study in Tuskegee, Alabama, on the course of syphilis in untrea
Training Course on Mangroves and Biodiversity
This course was developed by the Centre of Advanced Study in Marine Biology, Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu, India with financial support from the United Nations University.
Neither Victim nor Villain: Nurse Eunice Rivers, the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment, and Public Health
From 1932 to 1972 white physicians of the United States Public Health Service (USPHS) carried out an experiment on approximately 400 rural black men in Macon County, Alabama. The study, which historian James Jones has described as "the longest nontherapeutic experiment on human beings in medical history," was predicated on following the course of untreated syphilis until death. 1 Historians have focused on the study as scientifically unjustifiable and as an unethical experiment that highlights t
Racism and Research: The Case of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study
In 1932 the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) initiated an experiment in Macon County, Alabama, to determine the natural course of untreated, latent syphilis in black males. The test comprised 400 syphilitic men, as well as 200 uninfected men who served as controls. The first published report of the study appeared in 1936 with subsequent papers issued every four to six years, through the 1960s. When penicillin became widely available by the early 1950s as the preferred treatment for syphilis, t
HIV/AIDS TRENDS; Attention to AIDS wanes, but illness is still rampant
Arkansas' leaders are mistaken if they think the epidemic of acquired immune-deficiency syndrome is under control, according to advocates for AIDS support groups. They expressed concern in an appearance before a legislative committee that authorities have become apathetic about the illness again. The Arkansas AIDS Drug Assistance Program and Jefferson Comprehensive Care Inc. appealed to the joint legislative Minority Health Subcommittee for increased funding and new laws.
Healthy People 2010 disease prevalence in the Marshfield Clinic Personalized Medicine Research Proje
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Healthy People 2010 disease conditions in a large population-based cohort in central Wisconsin (WI, USA) and to consider how these conditions can be prioritized for research based on the use of healthcare services, the prevalence of various disease states and the resulting study power. Methods: Healthy People 2010 diagnoses were estimated for participants in the Personalized Medicine Research Project (PMRP), a large popula
Parental Literacy and Infant Health: An Evidence-Based Healthy Start Intervention
Syracuse Healthy Start, a federally funded infant mortality prevention project in Onondaga County, New York, has undertaken a range of interventions to address parental low literacy as a risk factor for infant mortality. A growing number of studies advocate for health-related information that is easy to read, of a low literacy level, and culturally appropriate. Creation of an evidence-based public health intervention involves analyzing local data, reviewing published studies, assessing available
‘‘It’s The Skin You’re In’’: African-American Women Talk About Their Experiences of Raci
Objectives: Stress due to experiences of racism could contribute to African-American women’s adverse birth outcomes, but systematic efforts to measure relevant experiences among childbearing women have been limited. We explored the racism experiences of childbearing African-American women to inform subsequent development of improved measures for birth outcomes research. Methods: Six focus groups were conducted with a total of 40 socioeconomically diverse African-American women of childbearing
Ensuring Community-Level Research Protections
Community-Campus Partnerships for Health (CCPH) and the Tuskegee University National Center for Bioethics in Research and Health Care (the Bioethics Center) sponsored an Educational Conference Call Series on Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) and Ethical Issues in Research that took place between February 2007 and June 2007, which advanced their shared goal of meaningfully involving communities in decisions made about every aspect of research. The call series was intended to increase understandi
Culturally appropriate health education for type 2 diabetes mellitus in ethnic minority groups
Background Ethnic minority groups in upper-middle and high income countries tend to be socio-economically disadvantaged and to have higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes than the majority population. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of culturally appropriate diabetes health education on important outcome measures in type 2 diabetes. Search strategy We searched the The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ERIC, SIGLE and reference lists of articles. We also contacted auth
Biology of Cnidarians
Biology of cnidarians. How to find and study them on your own. See them swim and catch their food with their tentacles!
Guidelines for Teaching Middle and High School Students to Read and Write Well
Most classroom teachers work hard planning lessons, choosing materials, teaching classes, working with individual students, and assessing student progress. Yet some schools and teachers seem to be more successful than others. What makes the difference? This booklet is designed for middle and high school teachers and administrators who wish to improve their English programs. Guidelines for Teaching Middle and High School Students to Read and Write Well draw upon a series of research reports and c
The Role of Community Advisory Boards: Involving Communities in the Informed Consent Process
Ethical research involving human subjects mandates that individual informed consent be obtained from research participants or from surrogates when participants are not able to consent for themselves.The existing requirements for informed consent assume that all study participants have personal autonomy; fully comprehend the purpose, risks, and benefits of the research; and volunteer for projects that disclose all relevant information. Yet contemporary examples of lapses in the individual informe
An Approach to Studying Social Disparities in Health and Health Care
Objective. We explored methods and potential applications of a systematic approach to studying and monitoring social disparities in health and health care. Methods. Using delayed or no prenatal care as an example indicator, we (1) categorized women into groups with different levels of underlying social advantage; (2) described and graphically displayed rates of the indicator and relativegroup size for each social group; (3) identified and measured disparities, calculating relative risks and rat
Poverty and Elimination of Urban Health Disparities Challenge and Opportunity
The aim of this article is to examine the intersection of race and poverty, two critical factors fueling persistent racial and ethnic health disparities among urban populations. From the morass of social determinants that shape the health of racial and ethnic communities in our urban centers, we will offer promising practices and potential solutions to eliminating racial and ethnic health disparities.
Barbershops become urban community health centers
African-American communities in the shadows of the University of Pittsburgh's buildings are getting sick and dying sooner than their white counterparts, of preventable diseases -- and Dr. Stephen Thomas wants to change it. An outreach initiative involving local barbershops and beauty salons is a step in that direction.
Disparity By Geography The War on Drugs in America’s Cities
The “war on drugs,” beginning in the 1980s, represented a profound shift in the way in which the United States practiced law enforcement, and ushered in a new era in American policing. Overall, between 1980 and 2003, the number of drug offenders in prison or jail increased by 1100% from 41,100 in 1980 to 493,800 in 2003,2 with a remarkable rise in arrests concentrated in African American communities. This precipitous escalation began as the result of a tangible shift in law enforcement pract
The Reversal of Fortunes: Trends in County Mortality and Cross-County Mortality Disparities in the U
Background Counties are the smallest unit for which mortality data are routinely available, allowing consistent and comparable long-term analysis of trends in health disparities. Average life expectancy has steadily increased in the United States but there is limited information on longterm mortality trends in the US counties This study aimed to investigate trends in county mortality and cross-county mortality disparities, including the contributions of specific diseases to county level mortalit
Community Resilience as a Metaphor, Theory, Set of Capacities, and Strategy for Disaster Readiness
Communities have the potential to function effectively and adapt successfully in the aftermath of disasters. Drawing upon literatures in several disciplines, we present a theory of resilience that encompasses contemporary understandings of stress, adaptation, wellness, and resource dynamics. Community resilience is a process linking a network of adaptive capacities (resources with dynamic attributes) to adaptation after a disturbance or adversity. Community adaptation is manifest in population w
This webinar was presented on Tuesday, November 2, 2010 by Dr. Alice Gardner. Dr. Gardner discusses select pharmacogenomic effects in patients with asthma.