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Rosa Campusano

Other names/titles:
Gender: F
Ethnic origin: Unknown

Biographical details

Born in Guayaquil in 1798, from modest origins, her family managed to educate her. A wealthy Spaniard took her to Lima in 1817. She hosted tertulias in Calle San Marcelo that were a meeting place for Lima's youth who supported independence. She corresponded with San Martín, sending political secrets she'd picked up from Tristán and Viceroy la Serna. She persuaded Tomás Heres of the 900 strong Numancia Batallón to join the independence cause.

San Martín is said to have been deeply in love with her, and she was given the name "La Protectora". She later married a German merchant, Juan Weniger, they had one son, Alejandro. Alejandro was a contemporary of writer Ricardo Palma. Palma met Campusano in 1846 and described her beauty. She was then separated from Weniger and living on a modest pension from the Peruvian government. (Estrada, 48-50)

It is possible that she became San Martín's mistress in July 1821. (Rumazo Gonzalez, 112)

She kept an open house in calle San Marcelo, Lima, for literary and political meetings, that were attended by Viceroy La Serna. Ricardo Palma gave her the name "La Protectora". Neuhaus doubts she was San Martín's mistress. (Neuhaus, 117, 121, 122, 125)

She was awarded the Orden del Sol (Peru) by San Martín in 1822. (Gaceta de Lima, 23-1-1822, p.4)

She was forced to flee after having sung the national anthem. (Guardia, 48)

Together with Brigida Silva and Carmen Guzmán, she spread libertarian ideas throughout Lima and the provinces. (Balta, 28.)

She died in 1860.

Life Events

Born 1798She was born in Guayaquil.
Other 1817She went to Lima.
Other 1822She was awarded the Orden del Sol.
Died 1860She died in Lima, in 1858 or 1860.


Pallis, Michael (trans.), (1980), Slaves of Slaves: The Challenge of Latin American Women

Estrada, Jenny, (1984), Mujeres de Guayaquil, siglo XVI al siglo XX

Rumazo Gonzalez, Alfonso, (1945), Manuela Sáenz, La libertadora del Libertador

Neuhaus Rizo Patrón, Carlos, (1997), Las Mariscalas

Jiménez de la Vega, Mercedes, (1981), La mujer ecuatoriana, frustraciones y esperanzas

Guardia, Sara Beatriz, (1985), Mujeres peruanas: El otro lado de la historia

García y García, Elvira, (1924), La mujer peruana a través de los siglos

, (1950), Gaceta del Gobierno de Lima Independiente, Tomos I-III, Julio 1822-dic 1822

Davies, Catherine, Brewster, Claire and Owen, Hilary, (2006), South American Independence. Gender, Politics, Text


There is no writing by this subject in the database.


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Gendering Latin American Independence

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