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Simón Bolívar

Other names/titles:
Gender: M
Ethnic origin: White

Biographical details

He was born in Caracas in 1783, the son of María de la Concepción Palacios. He went to Cartagena to fight for independence from Spain in 1812, and was defeated, but took the campaign along the Magdalena River.

In around 1813 he praised the contribution of women from Trujillo Province, Venezuela in the Independence wars. (Earle, 133-134)

He was greatly influenced by Rousseau ("se nutrío tanto de Rousseau"). (Anderson, 190) Bolívar "drew on Montesquieu throughout his political life". (Lynch, ed., 31)

He was a mason. (Racine, 538)

Knaster claims that he believed women to be superior to men. He gave pensions to widows out of his own pocket. (Knaster, 479.)

Méndez examines his attitude towards Indians. He issued a decree, based on an earlier one made by San Martín, prohibiting the employment of Indians in faenas, mita, pongaje, or similar services. (Méndez, 17-19, 21)

He was met Alexander Humboldt in the Paris salons in 1804 and they became good friends. He admired Voltaire, "En Voltaire se encuentra todo: estilo, grandes y profundos pensamientos filosóficos, crítica fina y diversión". His was introduced to Rousseau's work by his childhood tutor Simón Rodríguez. He was fascinated by Napoleon. He had a copy of Bentham's work among his possessions. (Zapata, 49, 58, 61-67, 88-89)

Lynch describes him as "an inspired soldier [and] an informed political thinker". (Lynch, xv)

He died in 1830 on his way into exile.

Life Events

Born 1783
Other 1804He met Humboldt in the Paris salons.
Other 1813He praised the women of Trujillo Province for their contribution to the cause.
Died 1830


Knaster, Meri, (1977), Women in Spanish America: An Annotated Bibliography from Pre-Conquest to Contemporary Times

Humphreys, R. A., (1969), The ´Detached Recollections' of General D. F. O'Leary

Dore, Elizabeth, and Molyneux, Maxine, (2000), Hidden Histories of Gender and the State in Latin America

Urbano, Enrique, (1992), Tradición y modernidad en los Andes

Romero de Valle, Emilia, (1948), Mujeres de América

Anderson Imbert, Enrique, (1954), Historia de la literatura hispanoamericana, Tomo I, La Colonia cien años de República

Lynch, John, (1986), The Spanish American Revolutions 1808-1826

Lynch, John, (1994), Latin American Revolutions

Werner, Michael S., (1997), Encyclopedia of Mexico

Zapata, Ramón, (1997), Los libros que leyó el Libertador Simón Bolívar

Forero, Paulo E., (1972), Las heroinas olvidadas de la independencia


Letter: Carta a las señoras Garaicoa

Letter: Carta

Speech: Discurso

Letter: Carta

Note: Oficio

Speech: Discurso ante el Congreso de Cúcuta

Letter: Carta

Letter: Carta

Letter: Carta a Manuela Sáenz

Letter: Carta al Señor Próspero Pereira Gamba

Letter: Carta a Santander

Speech: Discurso a las hijas del Socorro

Letter: Carta a Gral Santander


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Gendering Latin American Independence

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