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María Tomasa Estévez

Other names/titles: Esteves y Sala
Gender: F
Ethnic origin: Unknown

Biographical details

From Salamanca, Guanajuato, Mexico, she worked as an agent for the insurgent leaders by persuading royalist soldiers to defect to the independence cause. She was executed. (Knaster, 477)




Called "La mujer seductora" by Iturbide, Estévez served the independence cause by seducing men, and persuading them to join the patriot army. She was shot in Salamanca on 9 August 1814. After her execution her head was displayed in public. (Carrera Stampa, 1)




She was born in Salamanca, Guanajuato, into a humble family in 1782. She, like her mother, was working when the wars of independence broke out. She instantly joined the patriot side and began to work for the independence cause. She was an agent of several patriot leaders and worked to seduce and then persuade patriots to join the independence ranks and to convince royalists to change sides. She was a young and beautiful woman. Without naming her, Iturbide mentioned her work in the Diario Militar:


"Viernes 5 - (August 1814) Fueron pasados por las armas los tres reos aprehendidos en Valtierra, y como por sus declaraciones se averiguó que una mujer de este vecinidad, ha sido la principal agente en procurar la deserción de los 'Patriotas' que considerablemente se ha verificado en el mes anterior; después de aprehendida y sustanciado su proceso mandé que se pusiese en capilla para que se le aplique la pena ordinaria, en castigo de tan enormes delitos, y para escarmiento de su sexo…."


Martes 9 - Fue pasada por las armas la mujer seductoram cuya cabeza se ha puesto en la Plaza P√ļblica,,," (quoted in Mu√Īoz y P√©rez, a, 7)




On 17 September 1817 Viceroy F√©lix Mar√≠a Calleja wrote, "En el propio mes de (agosto) se pasaron por las armas a do desertores, y por un pa√≠sano, que aprenhendi√≥ una partida que envi√≥ para el efecto al pueblo de Valtierrilla‚Ķ Se fusil√≥ tambi√©n al mismo tiempo a Mar√≠a Tomasa Est√©vez, comisiada para seducir tropa, y habr√≠a sacado mucho fruto por su bella figura, a no ser tan acendrado el 'patriotismo' de estos soldados." She was brave and serene to the end. (quoted in Mu√Īoz y P√©rez, a, 7)




Miquel i Vergés gives her name as María Tomasa Esteves y Sala. She was born in Salamanca and in 1814 she persuaded royalist soldiers to join the independence troops. She was denounced, imprisoned and sentenced to death by Iturbide. On 9 August 1814 she was hung in the main plaza, Salamanca. Iturbide reported to the Viceroy: "… comisionada para seducir la tropa y habriá sacado mucho fruto por su bella figura, a no ser tan acentrado el patriotismo de esos soldados." (Miquel i Vergés, 190)




González Obregón quotes the same source as Miquel i Vergés, citing it as Gaceta de México, tomo V, no. 635, p.1084. (González Obregón, 161)

Life Events

Born 1782
Died 1814She was executed on 9 August 1814.

References

Knaster, Meri, (1977), Women in Spanish America: An Annotated Bibliography from Pre-Conquest to Contemporary Times

Carrera Stampa, Manuel, (1961), Heroínas de la guerra de independencia

Mu√Īoz y P√©rez, Daniel, (1961), Hero√≠nas mexicanas

Miquel i Vergés, José María, (1969), Diccionario de Insurgentes

González Obregón, Luis, (c1952), Los procesos militar e inquisitorial del Padre Hidalgo y de otros caudillos insurgentes


Publications

There is no writing by this subject in the database.


Links

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Resource id #35 (29)

Resource id #39 (49)




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