Robert Lloyd is a bacterial geneticist who applied molecular, biochemical and structural methods over a 42-year career at Nottingham to study DNA recombination, replication and repair. He modeled how the genetic material of an organism - its genome - is transmitted faithfully from one generation to the next.
Recombination is a vital evolutionary process that acts both to preserve genome integrity and to generate genetic diversity. Robert discovered many of the key genes associated with homologous recombination and recombination-dependent repair of damaged DNA in the bacterium Escherichia coli. His studies of the recR and recN genes shed light on the factors that facilitate initiation of recombination and DNA-break repair while his studies of ruv and recG established the critical role of the RuvABC protein complex and of the RecG helicase in processing DNA Holliday junction structures. This work paved the way towards an understanding of equivalent processes in human cells.
His discovery of the sbcC and sbcD genes and of their role in palindrome-mediated inviability laid the foundations for analysis of the SbcCD proteins in E. coli and of their RAD50 and MRE11 homologues in yeast and man where they orchestrate repair of DNA double-strand breaks and V(D)J recombination within the immune system.
Damage to DNA is unavoidable and can destabilise the genome, a common cause of cancer in human cells. Robert discovered that the E. coli enzyme RecG - which unwinds Holliday junctions and a number of other branched DNA structures - is an important player in genome maintenance. His research has also described how how conflicts between the protein machines associated with DNA replication and transcription are avoided or limited, or resolved when such conflicts do occur and threaten viability.
MRC Programme (£801,251; 01/01/2009 - 31/12/2011) Maintaining genome integrity: Avoiding pathological consequences during DNA replication and repair.
MRC Programme (£1,855,794; 2003/2008) Genomic instability: Interplay between DNA replication, recombination and repair.
Wellcome Trust Project (£316,166; 2001-2004) Genome dynamics and the interplay between DNA replication, transcription and repair.
Wellcome Trust Project (£125,210; 2001-2003) Development of a genetic and molecular system to study homologous recombination and DNA repair in Archaea using Haloferax volcannii as a model organism.
BBSRC Committee Studentship (~£40,000; 2001 - 2004)
MRC Quota Studentship (~£40,000; 2002-2005)
BBSRC Committee Studentship (~£40,000; 2003 -2006)
MRC Programme (£1,481,220; 1998/2003) Protein-Nucleic Acid Interactions In Genetic Recombination and DNA Repair.
MRC Equipment Grant (£50,000) - supplement to MRC programme.
MRC Consumables Grant (£28,750) - supplement to MRC programme grant
Royal Society-Leverhulme Trust (£23,001; 1996/97) Senior Research Leave Fellowship.
MRC Project (£270,301; 1995/98) DNA-helicase activity in genetic recombination and DNA repair
BBSRC (Project £154,820; 1995/98) Recognition and resolution of Holliday intermediates by junction-targeted recombination proteins.
British Council (£45,000; 1995/98) Genetic recombination in Escherichia coli: Resolution of recombination intermediates.
MRC (£6,000, 1995) Supplement to 1992 grant
BBSRC Project (£75,543; 1994/97) Processing of intermediates in recombination and DNA repair.
Wellcome Trust (£111,992, 1994) DNA-protein interactions in genetic recombination and gene expression.
Royal Society (£9,929; 1992) The enzymology of genetic recombination
British Council (£2,796; 1994). Support for visiting postdoctoral visitor.
Royal Society (£10,000; 1994) The enzymology of recombination - equipment grant
The Wellcome Trust (£50,377; 1993/96) Prize studentship - Mr Simon Vincent.
SERC (£111,339; 1992/95) Molecular pathways of recombination.
MRC Project (£178,964; 1992/95) Protein-DNA interactions in recombination and DNA repair.
SERC Project (£84,774; 1992/95) Genetic recombination: The formation and resolution of Holliday intermediates.
The Wellcome Trust (£24,771; 1991/92) Extension of Research Leave Fellowship
The Wellcome Trust (£2987; 1991) Equipment grant
MRC Project (£107,078, 1989/92) Molecular biology of recombination and DNA repair
SERC (£71,220; 1989/92) Molecular biology, enzymology and regulation of inducible recombination and DNA repair
The Wellcome Trust (£64,397; 1988/91) Research Leave Fellowship
SERC Project (£57,815; 1988/91) Analysis of sbcC, a gene that interferes with stable propagation of palindromes in E. coli host cell systems
SERC Project (£7,410; 1987/88) The RecN protein of E. coli - purification and preliminary studies
SERC Project (£42,823; 1985/89) Inducible recombination in E. coli: analysis of ruv and sbcC genes
SERC Project (£64,771; 1984/87) Inducible recombination and repair of DNA double-strand breaks
SERC Project (£57,500; 1982/85) Analysis of inducible recombination in E. coli
SERC Project (£26, 310; 1981/84) Analysis of DNA repair and mutagenesis in Escherichia coli
SERC Project (£24,918; 1978/81) Genetic control of recombination in Escherichia coli
SERC Project (£13,979; 1975/78) Analysis of recombination in Escherichia coli.
Royal Society University Research Fellowship to Dr Thorsten Allers (£450,000; 2002-2010)
Wellcome Trust Career Development Award to Dr Karen Bunting (£441,375: 2005/2009)
Wellcome Trust Career Development Award to Dr Edward Bolt (£373,000: 2002/2006)
Lister Institute - Jenner Fellowship to Dr Peter McGlynn (£224,000; 2000-2005)
MRC Career Establishment Award to Dr Peter McGlynn (£548,000; 2001-2006)
MRC Quota Studentships to Institute of Genetics: 2 for 2001-2004, 2 for 2002-2005, 2 for 2003-2006: approximate value £200,000.
Royal Society University Research Fellowship to Dr Gary Sharples (£252,000; (1992-2000)