Currently within FLUTE there are 50 students. All our students are skilled in multiple research areas such as: Low-carbon vehicles, Two-phase flow tomography, Chemical process engineering, Thin film flow, MATLAB computation, Gas adsorption, Thermodynamics, Aerodynamics and much more.
PhD title: Experimental and numerical investigation on temperature field in liquid to air membrane energy exchanger (LAMEE)
Supervisors: Dr Jie Zhu and Dr Guohui Gan
Key skills: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD); Phase change; Liquid to air membrane energy exchanger (LAMEE)
The main target of my task is to optimise the membrane based liquid desiccant air conditioning performance by investigating the temepratue field distribution inside the LAMEE with experimental and numercical methods. In the experiment process, sevaral parameters are investagated such as the inlet air velocity, inlet air temperature, inlet air humidity, solution mass flow rate , solution temperature, solution concentration and solution type etc. Numerical simulation is generated to compare with the experiment results. Software such as ANSYS Fluent and COMSOL are used for simulation.After validating the numerical model, parameters can be changed for further performance prediction.
PhD title: Investigation of Asymmetric Drag in Swimming and its Implication to Swimsuit Design
Supervisors: Prof Kwing-So Choi and Dr Donald Giddings
Key skills: Wind tunnel, Particle Image Velocimetry, Force analyses, MatLab - flow visualisation
My PhD wishes to investigate and quantify the predominant source of hydrodynamic drag in swimming using several techniques available to us, such as particle image velocimetry (PIV), flow visualisation technique and force measurement. Where a water tank, a swimming pool and a wind tunnel will be used to help determine the flow structures created during swimming.
In swimming, the primary source of propulsion and resistance is thought to come from the intra-cyclic variations of the arms and legs movements. Thus, under these conditions, little is known about the concomitant flow properties, particularly asymmetry flow field in the near-wake of a swimmer, which are believed to be a significant source of the swimmer’s hydrodynamic drag.
The results will be carefully analyzed to establish an understanding of drag forces and wake turbulence for the advancement of fluid mechanics related to swimming. For instance, underlining the dominant fluid forces involved, and the flow pattern generated in the near wake during swimming. The findings will be used to improve swimming techniques for UK athletes. As well as support the development of swimsuit design for Tokyo 2020 Olympics. This ICASE awarded PhD study is funded by EPSRC and Speedo International.
Supervisors: Dr Buddhik Hewakandamby and Dr David Hann
My research area is two-phase flow in pipes; work-in-progress focuses on investigating slug flow dynamics at varying fluid and operation conditions. This research involves an experimental study on the effect of liquid phase viscosity and pipe orientation on slugging and the shift in slug flow transition boundaries; identification of controlling parameters and mechanistic modelling of two-phase flow.
Multicomponent systems, particularly crude oil pipelines, heat exchanges, reactors.
Experimental studies and mechanistic modelling of viscous slug flow.
CFD modelling of viscous slug flow and exploring the effect of fluid properties on other flow regimes.
PhD title: Developing ejector technology for the intensification of carbon capture processes
Supervisors: Dr Buddhik Hewakandamby
I am working with Transvac to develop ejector technology for the intensification of carbon capture processes. This involves research into the fluid mechanics and mass transfer behaviour of liquid jet ejectors. In particular, my work aims to reduce the equipment cost and energy consumption of carbon capture technologies.
PhD title: Enhancement of vapour absorption using nanofluid influenced by the magnetic field.
Supervisors: Dr Shenyi Wu and Dr Guohui Gan
The vapour absorption process in a key process for the efficiency of vapour absorption refrigeration systems. The aim of the research is to enhance the vapour absorption process by use of nanofluid. The research, through mathematic modelling and lab experiment, will enable us to understand the roles of nanoparticle in the heat and mass transfer in the vapour absorption process. The knowledge gained from the research could be useful for designing innovative and high efficient vapour absorbers. The objectives of the research are to establish a simulation model which can predicate the performance of the vapour absorption with the nanoparticles subject to controlled movement and optimise the parameters to maximise the effectiveness of the vapour absorption process.
PhD title: Investigating the Effect of Viscosity on Gas- Liquid Flows Around Vertical and Horizontal Bends
Supervisors: Dr Buddhik Hewakandamby and Dr David Hann
Simultaneous flow of gas-liquid in pipes presents considerable challenges and difficulties due to the complexity of the two-flow mixture. Oil-gas industries need to handle highly viscous liquids, hence studying the effect of changing the fluid viscosity becomes imperative as this is typically encountered in deeper offshore exploration.
Pipe fittings including bends are widely used in most of the industrial process such as evaporation, condensation, and refrigeration. The complex nature of gas-liquid flow behavior increases in the presence of bends, because of centrifugal force induced by curvature. Therefore, predicting the unsteady hydrodynamics of the flow around bends is crucial for process design and flow control. This becomes more demanding in offshore location where pipe failure due to vibration and flooding incidents are unaffordable. The effect of bends is more pronounced within the intermittent flow region, particularly slug flow.
Slug flow is a complex flow pattern that is commonly encountered in oil and gas transportation and production. The prediction of hydrodynamic parameters of liquid slug, mainly frequency and maximum length, is necessary to avoid some operational issues such as flooding and high-pressure fluctuations. The redistribution of multiphase flows around bends has received little attention in the peer review literature. Most of the investigations have been restricted to single-phase flow, a few papers address the issue of gas-liquid systems but most of the reported experiments are confined to pipes of diameters that are much smaller than those used in the industry and in air-water flows. (Mukhtar, 2011) and (Rajab, 2017) study on gas-liquid flows using larger diameter pipe but both used oil of one viscosity. Hence, this current work realized the importance of the experimental characterization of slug flow, as such will focus on effect of viscosity on gas-liquid flow around horizontal/vertical bends and Mechanistic model of the two- phase flow from the generated data.
PhD title: Drag Reduction using Active Flow Control
Supervisors: Prof Kwing-So Choi and Dr Mark Jabbal
My research concerns the use of actuators and sensors in active flow control to reduce the drag over a truck body. This will begin with developing a computational model of the system, followed by the development of actuators and sensors to be used in the closed loop feedback control. The model will then have to be built and tested in a wind tunnel. The use of active flow control on truck bodies could improve efficiency, by reducing drag and improve safety by controlling how crosswinds affect the vehicle.
PhD title: Heat Transfer for Aerofoil Cooling Passages of Gas Turbine Engines
Supervisors: Prof Yuying Yan and Dr Jie Zhu
The ultimate aim of the research is to allow for higher power outputs and efficiencies of market leading gas turbines. This is achieved by an increased combustion temperature, this increase, alongside already massive stresses push the material limits of the life limiting turbine blades and nozzles. Therefore, an experimental and computational study into the heat transfer coefficients of various cooling features is being conducted to improve the design analysis techniques currently used. Additionally, the development and further research of new, novel aerodynamic geometries is being investigated to improve the cooling effectiveness. This will lead to improved aerofoil designs allowing for higher overall efficiency, power and lifespan.
Ismail El Mellas
PhD title: Multiscale modelling of boiling flows in complex micro-geometries for next-generation thermal management of high-power-density micro-devices
Supervisors: Dr Mirco Magnini, Dr David Hann and Dr Matteo Icardi
Key Skills: Heat and mass transfer, Phase Change, CFD, OpenFOAM
Research focused on the investigation and develop a multiscale simulation tool to perform numerical experiments of boiling in micro-geometries that ticks all the boxes: direct numerical simulation of two-phase flows, boiling/condensation, high-accuracy surface tension, micro-scale effects, contact angle dynamics, thermocapillary effects, conjugate heat transfer, adaptive mesh refinement, code parallelisation, open-source repository, code portability. Such a comprehensive simulation tool is unavailable at present. It will enable fundamental analyses of boiling phenomena in micro-geometries that will guide the design of the next-generation micro-evaporators for the thermal management of high-power-density devices such as computer CPUs, battery packs for electric vehicles, PEM fuel cells, to name a few.
PhD title: The Influence of Fuel Properties and Injection Strategies on Advanced Turbulent Jet Ignition
Supervisors: Prof Alasdair Cairns, Dr Antonino La Rocca, Prof Christopher Gerada and Dr Gaurang Vakil
Turbulent Jet Ignition is a type of pre-chamber assisted combustion system that has the potential to offer near-zero pollutant emissions and improved fuel economy in future passenger cars by enabling stable combustion at high dilution ratios. It has recently attracted interest by automotive manufacturers and it is one of the core topics within the ICE group at the University of Nottingham.
My research mainly focuses on optimising the fuelling strategies associated with this technology and developing in-house simulation tools for thermodynamic analysis of such combustion. The work to be undertaken during this PhD programme involves single cylinder testing, thermodynamic analysis and simulation of ICEs, as well as the investigation of alternative fuels. In addition, the potential coupling of Turbulent Jet Ignition to electrified systems will be examined towards the development of ultra-low emission hybrid powertrains.
PhD title: Sustainable Hydrogen CDT: To a 100% Hydrogen Domestic Boiler
Supervisors: Dr Donald Giddings, Prof David Grant, Dr Robin Irons
Currently, there are existing hydrogen infrastructure projects in progress in Europe (GRHYD in France) to use a mix of methane and hydrogen due to the safety issues and avoiding boiler burner redesign. Hydrogen burns quite differently to methane, with a faster flame speed, and a transparent flame, such that it is harder to control and maintain the flame in steady combustion, and the radiative transfer is weaker than for the visible methane flame. These characteristics require redesign of domestic boiler burners if hydrogen is to be used as a network fuel.