Tobacco and Alcohol Research

Nicotine Replacement Effectiveness and Delivery in Pregnancy

This research programme aims to develop and test a new support package to help pregnant women use enough Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) to quit smoking. The research is funded by a National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Programme Grant for Applied Research. 

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Why is this research important?

Most pregnant women want to stop smoking, but some find it hard. Around one in ten smoke at the time of delivery. NRT is available on the NHS for pregnant women who struggle to stop smoking, but most do not use enough NRT or take it long enough for it to work. We know that pregnant women who smoke are most likely to make use of NHS support if they find this relevant to them and easy to understand. Therefore, we have developed a tailored support package, which aims to improve use of NRT, to give pregnant women the best chance of quitting smoking.

About the N-READY programme

N-READY is a collaboration between researchers from the University of Nottingham, University of East Anglia, University of York, University of Stirling, St George’s University of London, University College London, University of Oxford, University of Cambridge, Université Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris), and NHS colleagues. It is hosted by Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust.

The programme started in July 2017, will run for six years, and is divided into four workstreams:

If you would like to read more about the programme, you can download the plain English summary.



 N-READY Publications

Workstream 1: Discover

Qualitative evidence 

McDaid, L., Thomson, R., Emery, J., Coleman, T., Cooper, S., Phillips, L., & Naughton, F. (2021). Agreement and Disparities between Women and Stop-Smoking Specialists about How to Promote Adherence to Nicotine Replacement Therapy in Pregnancy. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(9), 4673. 

McDaid, L., Thomson, R., Emery, J., Coleman, T., Cooper, S., Phillips, L., & Naughton, F. (2021). Understanding pregnant women’s adherence‐related beliefs about Nicotine Replacement Therapy for smoking cessation: A qualitative study. British Journal of Health Psychology, 26(1), 179-197. 

Thomson, R., McDaid, L., Emery, J., Naughton, F., Cooper, S., Dyas, J., & Coleman, T. (2019). Knowledge and Education as Barriers and Facilitators to Nicotine Replacement Therapy Use for Smoking Cessation in Pregnancy: A Qualitative Study with Health Care Professionals. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(10), 1814. 

Thomson, R., McDaid, L., Emery, J., Phillips, L., Naughton, F., Cooper, S., ... & Coleman, T. (2019). Practitioners’ Views on Nicotine Replacement Therapy in Pregnancy during Lapse and for Harm Reduction: A Qualitative Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(23), 4791. 


Systematic reviews

Taylor, L., Claire, R., Campbell, K., Coleman‐Haynes, T., Leonardi‐Bee, J., Chamberlain, C., Berlin, I., Davey, Mary-Ann., Cooper, S. & Coleman, T. (2021). Fetal safety of nicotine replacement therapy in pregnancy: systematic review and meta‐analysis. Addiction, 116(2), 239-277. 

Campbell, K., Coleman-Haynes, T., Bowker, K., Cooper, S. E., Connelly, S., & Coleman, T. (2020). Factors influencing the uptake and use of nicotine replacement therapy and e‐cigarettes in pregnant women who smoke: a qualitative evidence synthesis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews,(5). 

Claire, R., Chamberlain, C., Davey, M. A., Cooper, S. E., Berlin, I., Leonardi‐Bee, J., & Coleman, T. (2020). Pharmacological interventions for promoting smoking cessation during pregnancy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (3). 

Hickson, C., Lewis, S., Campbell, K. A., Cooper, S., Berlin, I., Claire, R., Oncken, C., Coleman-Haynes, T. & Coleman, T. (2019). Comparison of nicotine exposure during pregnancy when smoking and abstinent with nicotine replacement therapy: systematic review and meta‐analysis. Addiction, 114(3), 406-424. 













Tobacco and Alcohol research

The University of Nottingham

email:Chris Hill