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Recent Publications

  • POULTER, A., 2014. Illyricum and Thrace from Valentinian I to Theodosius II: the radical transformation of the Danubian provinces: Interdisciplinary Studes in Ancient Culture/Religion 14 In: interdisciplinary Studiesin Ancient Culture-Religion ed. I. Jacobs. 14. 1-383
  • 2014. Goths on the Lower Danube: their impact upon and behind the frontier Antiquite Tardive: Revue internationale d'histoire et d'archeologie (4th - 7th centuries AD. 21, 63-76.
  • POULTER, A.G., 2013. Dobri Dyal: a Late Roman fortress on the lower Danube Journal of Roman Archaeology. 26, 362-382
  • POULTER, A., 2013. An indefensible frontier: the claustra Alpium Iuliarum University of Nottingham eRepository. Available at: <http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/2156/>

Past Research

THE LATE ROMAN CITY: NICOPOLIS AD ISTRUM ( BULGARIA) 1985 - 1992

This, the first British research excavation carried out in Eastern Europe, was carried out in collaboration with Bulgarian colleagues on the site of Nicopolis ad Istrum, an ideal site for comparing the layout and functioning of a Roman and a late Roman urban centre. Central to the programme was environmental research and the construction of an on-site ceramic sequence. Not only was the early Byzantine site examined by a full geophysical survey and selective area excavation, a considerable amount of information came from well preserved 2nd - 4th century deposits. Consequently, it proved possible to reconstruct a continuous sequence of occupation from the foundation of Nicopolis early in the 2nd century down to its final destruction at the end of the 6th century AD. What emerged clearly form the results was that the Roman city was destroyed probably by the Huns c. 450 (when it was already in decline) and was replaced by an imperial military and religious centre and, though still described in historical sources as a polis, the new strongly fortified site was built and supported by central imperial funds. It was no longer tied to its rich agricultural territory, as had certainly been the case for the Roman city it replaced.

For further information see: 'The late Roman city'

Select bibliography

Published in three volumes

A.G. Poulter, The Roman, Late Roman and Early Byzantine city of Nicopolis ad Istrum: the British excavations 1985 - 1992, Monograph of the Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies, London, 1995.

A.G. Poulter, Nicopolis ad Istrum: a Roman to early Byzantine City: the Pottery and the Glass, The Society of Antiquaries of England, 1999 (Poulter on methodology, the excavations and the economic implications, R.K. Falkner on the pottery and J.D. Shepherd on the glass).

A.G. Poulter, Nicopolis ad Istrum, a Late Roman and Early Byzantine city: the Finds and Biological Remains, Society of Antiquaries of England, 2007

See also Publications section of website.

THE MACEDONIA RESEARCH PROGRAMME (GREECE) 1995



Ths research included two separate projects. The first successfully proved the potential for geophysical (resistivity) survey in the lower half of the ancient city of Philippi in north-eastern Greece.

The second task involved applying a new approach to intensive survey over an area (Louloudies) of 17ha surrounding a newly discovered and excavated late Roman quadriburgium, north of Katerini, in the fertile coastal lowland of the Pieria. The unusual conditions (all the land planted with grown crops) required a new approach to intensive survey but the results (combined with resistivity survey) proved remarkably successful. A previously unsuspected and major fortified 'city' was located 200m south of the quadriburgium. A substantial concentration of bricks with monogram stamps (along the western curtain-wall), together with ceramic finds, dated the new fortifications to the 6th to early 7th centuries AD, perched on the north bank of the Sourvala, with easy access to the Aegean.. As to the function of this site, it may be both a fortress, perhaps protecting the main east coast route which passed close by and used as a store base for the locally grown agricultural produce which could be easily shipped north to Thessaloniki, a city whose own territory was seriously threatened by Slav invasions, particularly in the early years of the 7th century.

The excellent results from the survey inspired the application and development of the survey methodology in the later 'Transition to Late Antiquity Programme' (see below).

For further information see: 'The Macedonia Programme'

Select bibliography

A.G. Poulter and P. Strange, 'Philippi: the results of a geophysical survey, Annual of the British School at Athens', 9 (1998), 453-461.

A.G. Poulter, 'Field survey at Louloudies: a new Late Roman fortification in Piera', Annual of the British School at Athens', 9 (1998), 46-511.

  • POULTER, A., 2014. Illyricum and Thrace from Valentinian I to Theodosius II: the radical transformation of the Danubian provinces: Interdisciplinary Studes in Ancient Culture/Religion 14 In: interdisciplinary Studiesin Ancient Culture-Religion ed. I. Jacobs. 14. 1-383
  • 2014. Goths on the Lower Danube: their impact upon and behind the frontier Antiquite Tardive: Revue internationale d'histoire et d'archeologie (4th - 7th centuries AD. 21, 63-76.
  • POULTER, A.G., 2013. Dobri Dyal: a Late Roman fortress on the lower Danube Journal of Roman Archaeology. 26, 362-382
  • POULTER, A., 2013. An indefensible frontier: the claustra Alpium Iuliarum University of Nottingham eRepository. Available at: <http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/2156/>
  • 2012. Inclusive Archaeology: practice and publication. In: Holistic Archaeology (peer reviewed) University of Leuvan, Belgium. (In Press.)
  • POULTER, A.G., 2009. A late Roman fort - but one built for Foederati?. In: MORILLO, A., HANEL, N. and MARTIN, E., eds., Limes XX: XX Congreso Internacional de Estudios sobre la Frontera Romana, XXth International Congress of Roman Frontier Studies, León (España), septiembre, 2006. Vol. 1 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas. 223-236
  • POULTER, A., 2008. The Lower Danubian frontier in Late Antiquity: evolution and dramatic change in the frontier zone, c. 296-600. In: HERZ, P., SCHMID, P. and STOLL, O., eds., Zwischen Region und Reich: das Gebiet der oberen Donau im Imperium Romanum Frank & Timme. 11-42
  • POULTER, A.G., 2007. Nicopolis ad Istrum: a Roman, Late Roman and early Byzantine city: vol. 3: the finds and the biological remains Oxford: Oxbow Books.
  • POULTER, A.G., ed., 2007. The Transition to Late Antiquity: on the Danube and beyond Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • POULTER, A.G., 2007. Invisible Goths within and beyond the Roman Empire. In: DRINKWATER, J. and SALWAY, B., eds., Wolf Liebeschuetz reflected: Essays presented by colleagues, friends, & pupils Institute of Classical Studies, University of London. 169-182
  • POULTER, A.G., 2006. Between East and West in Antiquity Antiquity. 80, 220-224
  • POULTER, A.G., 2004. Cataclysm on the lower Danube: the destruction of a complex Roman landscape. In: CHRISTIE, N., ed., Landscapes of change: rural evolutions in late Antiquity and the early Middle Ages Aldershot: Ashgate. 223-254
  • POULTER, A.G., 2003. One city's contribution to our understanding of Roman urbanism. In: WILSON, P., ed., The Archaeology of Roman Towns Oxford: Oxbow Books. 203-213
  • POULTER, A.G., 2002. From city to fortress and from town to country: 15 years of Anglo-Bulgarian collaboration In: The Roman and Late Roman City, Proceedings of the international conference on the excavations at Nicopolis and Dichin. 14-29
  • POULTER, A.G., 2002. Economic collapse in the countryside and the consequent transformation of city into fortress in Late Antiquity. In: DE BLOIS, L. and RICH, J., eds., The Transformation of economic life under the Roman Empire: Proceedings of the second workshop of the international network: Impact of Empire (Roman Empire, c.200 B.C. - A.D. 476), Nottingham, July 4-7, 2001 Amsterdam: J.C. Gieben. 244-266
  • POULTER, A.G., 2001. Nicopolis ad Istrum: two major British Academy research programmes British Academy Review. July-December, 39-42
  • POULTER, A.G., FALKNER, R.K. and SHEPHERD, J.D., 1999. Nicopolis ad Istrum : a Roman to early Byzantine city : the pottery and glass London: Leicester University Press for The Society of Antiquaries of London.
  • POULTER, A.G., 1999. The Roman to Byzantine transition in the Balkans: preliminary results on Nicopolis and its hinterland Journal of Roman Archaeology. 13, 347-358
  • POULTER, A.G., 1999. The transition to late antiquity on the Lower Danube: an interim report (1996-98) Antiquaries Journal. 79, 145-185
  • POULTER, A.G., 1999. Gradishte near Dichin: a new late Roman fortress on the Lower Danube In: Der Limes an der unteren Donau von Diokletian bis Heraklios, internationale Konferenz, Svishtov. 211-231
  • POULTER, A.G. and MARKI, E., 1998. Field Survey at Louloudies: the discovery of a new late Roman city in the Pieria. In: To Arhaiologiko Ergo ste Makedonia kai Thrake 9. 179-193
  • POULTER, A. G., BECKMANN, M. and STRANGE, P., 1998. Field survey at Louloudies: a new late Roman fortification in Pieria (Plates 81-86) British School at Athens. Annual. VOL 93, 463-512
  • POULTER, A.G., 1998. L'avenir du pass?: Recherches sur la transition entre la p?riode Romaine et le monde protobyzantin dans la region du Bas-Danube Antiquité Tardive. 6, 329-343
  • POULTER, A. G. and STRANGE, E., 1998. Philippi: the results of a geophysical survey (Plates 79-80) British School at Athens. Annual. VOL 93, 453-462
  • POULTER, A.G., 1998. The Transition to Late Antiquity (Bulgaria), the annual report for the 1998 season and review of the programme (1996-1998)
  • POULTER, A.G., 1997. Review of: town-planning and Population in Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegutusa. By Dorin Alicu and Adela Paki, BAR International Series 605. Tempus Reparatum, Oxford, 1995 and Small Finds from Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa. By Dorin Alicu, Sorin Cocis, Constantin Ilies, Alina Soroceanu, Sarmizegetusa monograph 4, The National History Museum of Transylvania, Biblioteca Musei Napocensis 9, Cluj-Napoca, (1994) Britannia. 28, 485-486
  • GRAHAM POULTER, A. and KERSLAKE, I., 1997. Vertical Photographic Site Recording: The "Holmes Boom" Journal of Field Archaeology. VOL 24(NUMBER 2), 221-232
  • POULTER, A.G., 1997. Review of: Stobi the Hellenistic and Roman Pottery by V.R. Anderson-Stojanovic, Princeton University Press, 1992 Journal of Hellenic Studies. 117, 264-265
  • POULTER, A., 1997. Mitchell, S., Cremna in Pisidia, an Ancient City in Peace and in War Journal of Roman Studies. VOL 87, 315-317
  • POULTER, A.G., 1997. Map, site indexes and text for Moesia Inferior, Thrace and Dacia. In: The Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • POULTER, A.G., 1996. Articles on 'Nesebur', 'Preslav', 'Pliska', 'Sofia' and 'Perushtitsa'. In: TURNER, J., ed., The Macmillan Dictionary of Art London: Macmillan.
  • POULTER, A.G., 1996. Town and country in the late Roman Balkans: recent research in Bulgaria and Greece. In: WILSON, R.J.A., ed., From River Trent to Raqqa Nottingham: University of Nottingham. 42-58
  • POULTER, A. G. and BLAGG, T.F.C., 1995. Nicopolis ad Istrum : a Roman, late Roman and early Byzantine city: Vol 1 : Excavations 1985-1992 London: Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies.
  • POULTER, A.G., 1994. Novae in the 4th Century AD: city or fortress? A problem with a British perspective. In: Limes, Studia di Storia 5. 139-148
  • POULTER, A.G., 1994. Review of 'Pautalia I: the Topography, Urban Development and Fortifications' by L R Slokoska, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, (1989) Britannia. 25, 343
  • POULTER, A.G., 1994. Churches in Space: the early Byzantine city of Nicopolis. In: Churches Built in Ancient Times: Recent Studies in Early Christian Archaeology, Occasional Papers from the Society of Antiquaries of London 16. 249-268
  • POULTER, A.G., 1994. Nicopolis ad Istrum; the environmental and economic structure of a Roman city In: Izvestiya na Istoricheskiya Mouzei - Veliko Turnovo, IX. 11-36
  • POULTER, A.G., 1993. Chronology and economy: the Bulgarian/British excavations at Nicopolis: the results of the British team In: Studies on Settlement Life in Ancient Thrace, Proceedings of the 3rd international symposium 'Cabyle'. 182-191

Department of Archaeology

University of Nottingham
University Park
Nottingham, NG7 2RD

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