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Phil Garnsworthy

Head of Division of Animal Sciences and Professor of Dairy Science, Faculty of Science

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Biography

Prof Phil Garnsworthy

Head of Division of Animal Sciences and Professor of Dairy Science

Phil's research encompasses all aspect of dairy science with particular emphasis on nutrition.

Current research projects include:

  • Feed efficiency and sustainability of dairy systems
  • Variation in methane emissions by individual dairy cows measured on-farm
  • Nutritive value of co-products from the bioethanol industry
  • Rumen function in relation to the microbiome, the cow genome, and digestive efficiency
  • Manipulation of milk fatty acid profile by nutrition and genetics
  • Nutritional strategies for enhancing dairy cow fertility

Research Summary

Nutrition of Dairy Cows

Phil's main area of interest lies in the nutrition of dairy cows and how to maximise efficiency of feed utilization for milk production without compromising reproductive performance, thereby minimising environmental impact.

Phil leads a £2.5m Research Partnership funded by DairyCo, the UK dairy industry body, investigating Animal Health, Welfare and Nutrition. Partners in the project are the Nottingham Vet School, Harper Adams University College, RVC, Bristol University, SAC and IBERS. For information, see http://www.alumni.nottingham.ac.uk/netcommunity/page.aspx?pid=2698

Phil sits on the management committee of the methane programme within the Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Research Platform project. This is a new research programme with a total investment of £12.6 million, funded by Defra and the devolved administration governments. It seeks to improve the accuracy and resolution of our reporting system by providing new experimental evidence on the factors affecting emissions and statistics relevant to changing farming practices in the UK. See http://www.ghgplatform.org.uk/

Phil is a partner in the 7.7m Euro EU FP7 project RuminOmics, which will connect the animal genome, gastrointestinal microbiomes and nutrition to improve digestion efficiency and the environmental impacts of ruminant livestock production. See http://www.ruminomics.eu/

Phil is on the management committee of the £2.7m LINK project ENBBIO (Environmental and Nutritional Benefits of BIOethanol co-products), which involves 25 industry and academic partners, sponsored by Defra through the Sustainable Livestock Production LINK programme. The aim of the project is to quantify sources of variability in wheat DDGS a co-product of the modern bioethanol and distilling industries, identify opportunities to enhance its value, to consider innovative processes to reduce fibre content (for non-ruminants) and to quantify the contribution of the co-products to the overall GHG balance of UK crop, livestock and ethanol production. See http://www.adas.co.uk/Home/Projects/ENBBIO/tabid/338/Default.aspx

Phil has presented invited papers and lectures in more than 30 countries around the world. Current research links are with collaborators in USA, Canada, Mexico, Brazil, New Zealand, Australia, Malaysia, China, Finland, Sweden, Italy, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Switzerland and Ireland. Phil represents the UK in the Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases in the rapid-techniques group.

Selected Publications

Phil is (since 1992) Secretary of the Nottingham Feed Conference. This meeting has been held annually since 1967 and is the premier event of its kind in the UK. Each year, between 12 and 15 international experts are invited to present papers on topics of current relevance to the Feed Industry. Phil edits the proceedings - Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition, which are sold throughout the world. See http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/feedconf

Phil is (since 1996) on the organizing committee of the Nottingham Cattle Fertility Conference, which is a one-day international conference held annually in collaboration with British Cattle Veterinary Association. See http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/biosciences/divisions/animal/cattlefertilityconference/index.aspx

Phil is leader of the DairyCo Research Partnership on Health, Welfare and Nutrition. He regularly gives talks to advisors and farmers about the findings of the research.

Past Research

Fertility

In collaboration with Bob Webb at Nottingham, the Roslin Institute and SAC Aberdeen, Phil demonstrated that nutrition has major influences on fertility in dairy cows and beef heifers. Diets designed to increase blood insulin concentrations led to earlier resumption of cyclic activity and improved conception rates in postpartum dairy cows. However, although pregnancy rates are increased by a high-insulin diet, very high concentrations of insulin may be detrimental to embryo development. The project also investigated effects of individual dietary components on plasma insulin in dairy cows, in order to develop models to predict the implications of different feeding strategies for reproduction. Using this information, dietary strategies were designed to alter blood insulin at critical stages of the reproductive cycle resulting in significant improvements in pregnancy rate.

Methane and ammonia emissions

Phil developed a model to calculate the impact of dairy systems on environmental emissions, which is based on nutritional and physiological principles, rather than standard values per animal. The primary driver of total emissions at the herd or national level is the number of animals per unit of output. This is heavily influenced by fertility and the model shows that if fertility of UK cows was improved to the level achieved by the best herds, national methane and ammonia emissions would be reduced by approximately 20%.

In 2007 Phil and his team developed a novel method for measuring methane emissions by individual dairy cows during milking. This involves sampling the breath of cows and recording how often they belch. With funding from Defra, the method was calibrated against daily methane output by cows in respiration chambers. The method is currently being used to assess variability among thousands of cows on commercial dairy farms to inform the national greenhouse gas inventory.

Body condition score in dairy cows

Interest in body condition score of dairy cows started when Phil was registered for a PhD at Aberdeen University. Whilst studying voluntary food intake, he tried to explain why dairy cows have a delay between peak milk yield and maximum appetite. At that time, advisers recommended calving cows with a condition score of 3.5 to allow them to "milk off their backs". In two experiments, he demonstrated that body fat inhibits food intake so the delay was actually caused by management practices. Thin cows (condition score 2 at calving) had greater appetites and produced milk directly from food, which is more efficient. Maximum appetite of thin cows coincided with peak milk yield. In later experiments at Nottingham Phil showed that body fat mobilisation is dependent not only on the degree of fatness, but also on dietary protein and energy concentrations. As a result of this series of experiments, recommended condition scores at calving have been reduced. The work has been replicated and inspired novel research and updated recommendations throughout the world.

Milk composition

Phil has conducted several large studies on nutritional and genetic factors influencing milk fatty acid composition. The primary aim is to improve the fatty acid profile of milk by reducing the proportion of saturated fatty acids and increasing proportions of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Of particular interest is conjugated linoleic acids (CLA), which potentially have tremendous health benefits for humans. They are anticarcinogenic, anti-diabetic and anti-atherogenic; they alter nutrient partitioning away from body fat and improve the immune system. A major source of CLA is cow's milk. Phil led studies looking at seasonal variation in the CLA content of milk and mechanisms by which CLA is produced by cows in the rumen and mammary gland. This work showed that 80% of CLA is synthesised in the mammary gland via the desaturase enzyme system. In a study of 10,000 cows, it was shown that desaturase activity has a heritability of 30%, so there are opportunities to breed cows for healthier milk.

Food intake prediction

The main limitation to milk production by dairy cows is food intake. Phil investigated the use of alkanes for measuring food intake of cows fed under group conditions. Alkanes are inert waxes found naturally in plants and have been used for predicting intake in grazing sheep. Phil developed the technique for cows fed on silage so that intake can be predicted from a sample of faeces from representative cows. Subsequently, he found that near-infrared spectroscopy can also provide accurate measurements of food intake from faecal samples.

Rumen synchrony

Studies of rumen fermentation have concentrated on synchronising the supply of energy and nitrogen to rumen microbes. A computer model was developed that predicted the hourly supply of nutrients from degradation characteristics of feed ingredients. In sheep, synchronising energy and nitrogen supply leads to significant increases in microbial efficiency of nitrogen capture. The work was extended to lactating dairy cows, but it was found that these animals have various strategies for overcoming the effects of asynchronous diets. Diet selection and control of meal size and feeding pattern are two strategies. Recycling of nitrogen in the rumen is doubled with asynchronous diets and the rumen microbes increase their storage of polysaccharides.

  • GARNSWORTHY PC, 2012. Sustainable intensive farming systems. In: CASASUS I, ROGOSOC J, ROSATI A, STOKOVIC I and GABINA D, eds., Animal farming and environmental interactions in the Mediterranean region Wageningen Academic Publishers. 139-143
  • GARNSWORTHY, P.C., CRAIGON, J., HERNANDEZ-MEDRANO, J.H. and SAUNDERS, N., 2012. On-farm methane measurements during milking correlate with total methane production by individual dairy cows Journal of Dairy Science. 95(6), 3166-3180
  • GARNSWORTHY, P.C., CRAIGON, J., HERNANDEZ-MEDRANO, J.H. and SAUNDERS, N., 2012. Variation among individual dairy cows in methane measurements made on farm during milking Journal of Dairy Science. 95(6), 3181-3189
  • PRING SR, OWEN M, KING JR, SINCLAIR KD, WEBB R, FLINT APF and GARNSWORTHY PC, 2012. A mathematical model of the bovine oestrous cycle: Simulating outcomes of dietary and pharmacological interventions Journal of Theoretical Biology. 313, 115–126
  • GARNSWORTHY, PC, FENG, S, LOCK, AL and ROYAL, MD, 2010. Short Communication: Heritability Of Milk Fatty Acid Composition And Stearoyl-Coa Desaturase Indices In Dairy Cows Journal Of Dairy Science. 93(4), 1743-1748
  • SINCLAIR, KD and GARNSWORTHY, PC, 2010. Fatty Acids And Fertility In Dairy Cows
  • WONNACOTT, K.E., KWONG, W.Y., HUGHES, J., SALTER, A.M., LEA, R.G., GARNSWORTHY, P.C. and SINCLAIR, K.D., 2010. Dietary omega-3 and-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids affect the composition and development of sheep granulosa cells, oocytes and embryos Reproduction. 139(1), 57-69
  • MAAS, J.A., GARNSWORTHY, P.C. and FLINT, A.P.F., 2009. Modelling responses to nutritional, endocrine and genetic strategies to increase fertility in the UK dairy herd. The Veterinary Journal. 180, 356-362
  • GARNSWORTHY, P.C., GONG, J.G., ARMSTRONG, D.G., MANN, G.E., SINCLAIR, K.D. and WEBB, R., 2009. Effect of site of starch digestion on metabolic hormones and ovarian function in dairy cows Livestock Science. 125(2-3), 161-168
  • GARNSWORTHY, P.C., FOULADI-NASHTA, A.A., MANN, G.E., SINCLAIR, K.D. and WEBB, R., 2009. Effect of dietary-induced changes in plasma insulin concentrations during the early post partum period on pregnancy rate in dairy cows Reproduction. 137(4), 759-768
  • SMITH, JMD, MAAS, JA, GARNSWORTHY, PC, OWEN, MR, COOMBES, S, PILLAY, TS, BARRETT, DA and SYMONDS, ME, 2009. Mathematical Modeling Of Glucose Homeostasis And Its Relationship With Energy Balance And Body Fat Obesity. 17, 632-639
  • FOULADI-NASHTA, AA, WONNACOTT, KE, GUTIERREZ, CG, GONG, JG, SINCLAIR, KD, GARNSWORTHY, PC and WEBB, R, 2009. Oocyte Quality In Lactating Dairy Cows Fed On High Levels Of N-3 And N-6 Fatty Acids Reproduction. 138(5), 771-781
  • AGUILAR-PEREZ, C, KU-VERA, J, CENTURION-CASTRO, F and GARNSWORTHY, PC, 2009. Energy Balance, Milk Production And Reproduction In Grazing Crossbred Cows In The Tropics With And Without Cereal Supplementation Livestock Science. 122(2-3), 227-233
  • NAM, IS, GARNSWORTHY, PC and AHN, JH, 2009. Effects Of Freeze-Dried Citrus Peel On Feed Preservation, Aflatoxin Contamination And In Vitro Ruminal Fermentation Asian-Australasian Journal Of Animal Sciences. 22(5), 674-680
  • AGUILAR-PEREZ, C, KU-VERA, J and GARNSWORTHY, PC, 2009. Effects Of Bypass Fat On Energy Balance, Milk Production And Reproduction In Grazing Crossbred Cows In The Tropics Livestock Science. 121(1), 64-71
  • ROOKE, JA, AINSLIE, A, WATT, RG, ALINK, FM, MCEVOY, TG, SINCLAIR, KD, GARNSWORTHY, PC and WEBB, R, 2009. Dietary Carbohydrates And Amino Acids Influence Oocyte Quality In Dairy Heifers Reproduction Fertility And Development. 21(3), 419-427
  • GARNSWORTHY, P.C., 2008. How does Nutrition Interact with Fertility in Dairy Cows? CATTLE PRACTICE. VOL 16(PART 1), 20-23
  • GARNSWORTHY, PC, GONG, JG, ARMSTRONG, DG, NEWBOLD, JR, MARSDEN, M, RICHARDS, SE, MANN, GE, SINCLAIR, KD and WEBB, R, 2008. Nutrition, Metabolism, And Fertility In Dairy Cows: 3. Amino Acids And Ovarian Function Journal Of Dairy Science. 91(11), 4190-4197
  • GARNSWORTHY, P.C., LOCK, A., MANN, G.E., SINCLAIR, K.D. and WEBB, R, 2008. Nutrition, metabolism, and fertility in dairy cows: 1. Dietary energy source and ovarian function Journal of Dairy Science. 91(10), 3814-3823
  • GARNSWORTHY, P.C., LOCK, A., MANN, G.E., SINCLAIR, K.D. and WEBB, R, 2008. Nutrition, metabolism, and fertility in dairy cows: 2. Dietary fatty acids and ovarian function Journal of Dairy Science. 91(10), 3824-3833
  • GAMA, MAS, GARNSWORTHY, PC, GRIINARI, JM, LEME, PR, RODRIGUES, PHM, SOUZA, LWO and LANNA, DPD, 2008. Diet-Induced Milk Fat Depression: Association With Changes In Milk Fatty Acid Composition And Fluidity Of Milk Fat Livestock Science. 115(2-3), 319-331
  • GARNSWORTHY, PC, FOULADI-NASHTA, AA, MANN, GE, SINCLAIR, KD, ARMSTRONG, DG, GONG, JG, GUTIERREZ, CG and WEBB, R, 2008. How Does Nutrition Interact With Fertility In Dairy Cows? Cattle Practice. 16, 20-23
  • GARNSWORTHY, P.C., SINCLAIR, K.D. and WEBB, R., 2008. Integration of physiological mechanisms that influence fertility in dairy cows Animal. 2(8), 1144-1152
  • GARNSWORTHY, PC, SINCLAIR, KD and WEBB, R, 2008. Nutrition And Fertility In Cattle CATTLE PRACTICE. 16, 194-199
  • WEBB, R, SINCLAIR, KD, FOULADI-NASHTA, AA, MANN, GE and GARNSWORTHY, PC, 2008. Opportunities to influence postpartum ovarian activity by nutrition in the modern high yielding dairy cow In: 16th International Congress on Animal Reproduction. 13-13
  • FOULADI-NASHTA, A, GUTIERREZ, CG, SINCLAIR, KD, GARNSWORTHY, PC and WEBB, R, 2008. Sources of dietary fatty acids affect the developmental potential of oocytes and quality of embryos in lactating dairy cows In: 16th International Congress on Animal Reproduction. 188-188
  • ROOKE, JA, AINSLIE, A, WATT, RG, ALINK, FM, MCEVOY, TG, SINCLAIR, KD, GARNSWORTHY, PC and WEBB, R, 2008. Feeding Frequency Has Diet-Dependent Effects On Plasma Hormone Concentrations But Does Not Affect Oocyte Quality In Dairy Heifers Fed Fibre- Or Starch-Based Diets Animal. 2(9), 1361-1370
  • FENG, S., SALTER, A.M., PARR, T. and GARNSWORTHY, P.C., 2007. Extraction and quantitative analysis of stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase mRNA from dairy cow milk somatic cells Journal of Dairy Science. 90(9), 4128-4136
  • FOULADI-NASHTA, A.A., GUTIERREZ, C.G., GONG, J.G., GARNSWORTHY, P.C. and WEBB, R., 2007. Impact of dietary fatty acids on oocyte quality and development in lactating dairy cows Biology of Reproduction. 77(1), 9-17
  • NAM, I.S. and GARNSWORTHY, P.C., 2007. Biohydrogenation of linoleic acid by rumen fungi compared with rumen bacteria Journal of Applied Microbiology. Online Early Articles, (1-6)
  • WEBB,R, GARNSWORTHY,PC, CAMPBELL,BK and HUNTER,MG, 2007. Intra-ovarian regulation of follicular development and oocyte competence in farm animals. Theriogenology. 68S, S22-S29
  • NAM, I.S. and GARNSWORTHY, P.C., 2007. Biohydrogenation Pathways for Linoleic and Linolenic Acids by Orpinomyces Rumen Fungus ASIAN AUSTRALASIAN JOURNAL OF ANIMAL SCIENCES. VOL 20(NUMB 11), 1694-1698
  • NAM, IN SIK and GARNSWORTHY, PHILIP C, 2007. Factors influencing biohydrogenation and conjugated linoleic acid production by mixed rumen fungi. Journal of Microbiology. 45(3), 199-204
  • GARNSWORTHY, P.C., MASSON, L.L., LOCK, A.L. and MOTTRAM, T.T., 2006. Variation of milk citrate with stage of lactation and de novo fatty acid synthesis in dairy cows Journal of Dairy Science. 89(5), 1604-1612
  • NAM, I.S., GARNSWORTHY, P.C. and AHN, J.H., 2006. Supplementation of Essential Oil Extracted from Citrus Peel to Animal Feeds Decreases Microbial Activity and Aflatoxin Contamination without Disrupting In vitro Ruminal Fermentation Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences. VOL 19(NUMB 11), 1617-1622
  • SALTER, A. M., LOCK, A. L., GARNSWORTHY, P. C. and BAUMAN, D. E., 2006. MILK FATTY ACIDS: IMPLICATIONS FOR HUMAN HEALTH RECENT ADVANCES IN ANIMAL NUTRITION - 2006. CONF 40, 1-18
  • GARNSWORTHY, P.C., 2006. Nutrition and Fertility in Dairy Cows Cattle Practice. VOL 14(PART 1), 13-16
  • GARNSWORTHY, P. C., 2006. BODY CONDITION SCORE IN DAIRY COWS: TARGETS FOR PRODUCTION AND FERTILITY RECENT ADVANCES IN ANIMAL NUTRITION - 2006. CONF 40, 61-86
  • LOCK, A.L., BAUMAN, D.E. and GARNSWORTHY, P.C., 2005. Effect of production variables on the cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid content of cows' milk. Journal of Dairy Science. 88(8), 2714-7
  • GARNSWORTHY, P.C., 2005. The environmental cost of infertility in dairy herds Cattle Practice. 12, 47
  • ROYAL, M.D. and GARNSWORTHY, P.C., 2005. Estimation of genetic variation in Delta9-desaturase enzyme activity in dairy cows Proceedings - British Society of Animal Science. YEAR, 52
  • HADLEY, P.J. and GARNSWORTHY, P.C., 2005. Raw Material Quality Issues Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association. VOL 100(NUMB 4), 142-148
  • HADLEY, P J, FORBES, A B, RICE, B J and GARNSWORTHY, P C, 2005. Impact of the duration of control of cattle lice with eprinomectin on leather quality. The Veterinary record. 157(26), 841-4
  • WISEMAN, J. and GARNSWORTHY, P.C., 2004. Influence of dietary fats and oils on animal product quality Inform. VOL 15(PART 5), 334-335
  • GARNSWORTHY, P.C., 2004. The environmental impact of fertility in dairy cows: a modelling approach to predict methane and ammonia emissions Animal Feed Science and Technology. 112(1-4), 211-223
  • WEBB, R., GARNSWORTHY, P.C., GONG, J-G. and ARMSTRONG, D.G., 2004. Control of follicular growth: local interactions and nutritional influences. Journal of Animal Science. 82 E-Suppl, E63-74
  • HADLEY, P.J, FORBES, A.B and RICE, B.R. AND GARNSWORTHY P.C., 2004. The control of cattle lice and effects on leather quality The Veterinary Record. 153, 255-259
  • FENG, S., LOCK, A.L. and GARNSWORTHY, P.C., 2004. A Rapid Lipid Separation Method for Determining Fatty Acid Composition of Milk Journal of Dairy Science. VOL 87(NUMB 11), 3785-3788
  • PRYCE, J.E., ROYAL, M.D., GARNSWORTHY, P.C. and MAO, I.L., 2004. Fertility in the high-producing dairy cow Livestock Production Science. VOL 86(NUMBER 1-3), 125-135
  • GARNSWORTHY, P.C. and UNAL, Y., 2004. Estimation of dry-matter intake and digestibility in group-fed dairy cows using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy Animal Science. VOL 79(PART 2), 327-334
  • LOCK, A.L. and GARNSWORTHY, P.C., 2003. Seasonal variation in milk conjugated linoleic acid and delta9-desaturase activity in dairy cows Livestock Production Science. VOL 79(NUMBER 1), 47-59
  • MANN, G.E., GREEN, M.P., SINCLAIR, K.D., DEMMERS, K.J., FRAY, M.D., GUTIERREZ, C.G., GARNSWORTHY, P.C. and WEBB, R., 2003. Effects of circulating progesterone and insulin on early embryo development in beef heifers Animal Reproduction Science. VOL 79(NUMBER 1-2), 71-79
  • SINCLAIR, K.D., GARNSWORTHY, P.C. and WEBB, R., 2003. Recent advances in reproductive technologies : implications for livestock production and animal nutrition. In: GARNSWORTHY, P.C. and WISEMAN, J., eds., Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition - 2003 Nottingham University Press. 89-113
  • GARNSWORTHY, P.C. and WISEMAN, J., 2003. Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition 2003: Proceedings of the 37th Feed Conference Nottingham University Press.
  • COLES, G.C., HADLEY, P.J., MILNES, A.S., GREEN, L.E., STOSIC, P.J. and GARNSWORTHY, P.C., 2003. Relationship between lice infestation and leather damage in cattle. The Veterinary Record. 153(9), 255-9
  • LOCK, A.L. and GARNSWORTHY, P.C., 2002. Independent effects of dietary linoleic and linolenic fatty acids on the conjugated linoleic acid content of cows' milk Animal Science. 74(1), 163-176
  • SALTER, A.M., DANIEL, Z.C., WYNN, R.J., LOCK, A.L., GARNSWORTHY, P.C. and BUTTERY, P.J., 2002. Manipulating the fatty acid composition of animal products: what has and what might be achieved. In: GARNSWORTHY, P.C. and WISEMAN, J., eds., Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition 2002 Nottingham: Nottingham University Press. 33
  • GONG, J.G., ARMSTRONG, D.G., BAXTER, G., HOGG, C.O., GARNSWORTHY, P.C. and WEBB, R., 2002. The effect of increased dietary intake on superovulatory response to FSH in heifers Theriogenology. VOL 57(NUMBER 6), 1591-1602
  • LOCK, A.L. and GARNSWORTHY, P.C., 2002. Delta9-desaturase activity in the mammary gland of lactating dairy cows Proceedings of the British Society of Animal Science. 2002, 181
  • GARNSWORTHY, P.C. and WISEMAN, J., 2002. Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition 2002: Proceedings of the 36th Feed Conference Nottingham University Press.
  • SCHOLEY, D. V., MANN, G. E. and GARNSWORTHY, P. C., 2002. Measurement of milk progesterone using near infrared spectroscopy PROCEEDINGS- BRITISH SOCIETY OF ANIMAL SCIENCE. 2002, 128
  • NINGRAT, R. W. S., GARNSWORTHY, P. C. and NEWBOLD, C. J., 2002. Saponin fractions in Sapindus rarak: effects on rumen microbes REPRODUCTION NUTRITION DEVELOPMENT. VOL 42(SUPP/1), S82
  • ALLISON, R. D. and GARNSWORTHY, P. C., 2002. Increasing the digestible undegraded protein intake of lactating dairy cows by feeding fishmeal or a rumen protected vegetable protein blend Animal Feed Science and Technology. VOL 96(NUMBER 1-2), 69-81
  • GONG, J. G., MOGHADDAM, A., BAXTER, G., GARNSWORTHY, P. C., WEBB, R. and ARMSTRONG, D. G., 2001. The effect of feeding a diet to increase circulating insulin concentrations on LH secretion during the early postpartum period in dairy cows REPRODUCTION -CAMBRIDGE- ABSTRACT SERIES. NO 27, 15
  • MASSON, L. L., MOTTRAM, T. T. and GARNSWORTHY, P. C., 2001. Within milking variation of urea, acetone, fat and protein and the determination of sampling time for an on-line system BSAS OCCASIONAL PUBLICATION. NUMB 28, 157-158
  • GARNSWORTHY, P.C. and WISEMAN, J, 2001. Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition 2001: Proceedings of the 35th Feed Conference Nottingham University Press.
  • GARNSWORTHY, P.C. and WISEMAN, J., 2001. Recent Developments in Pig Nutrition 3 Nottingham University Press.
  • GARNSWORTHY, P. C. and WISEMAN, J., 2000. Rumen digestibility of starch and nitrogen in near-isogenic lines of wheat Animal Feed Science and Technology. VOL 85(NUMBER 1-2), 33-40
  • GARNSWORTHY, P. C., WISEMAN, J. and FEGEROS, K., 2000. Prediction of chemical, nutritive and agronomic characteristics of wheat by near infrared spectroscopy Journal of Agricultural Science. VOL 135(PART 4), 409-418
  • GARNSWORTHY, P. C., 2000. Nutritional Influences on Fertility in Dairy Cows CATTLE PRACTICE. VOL 8(PART 4), 401-406
  • PRYCE, J. E., ROYAL, M. D., GARNSWORTHY, P. C. and MAO, I. L., 2000. Fertility in the high producing dairy cow BOOK OF ABSTRACTS OF THE ANNUAL MEETING -EUROPEAN ASSOCIATION FOR ANIMAL PRODUCTION. 51ST, 123
  • LOCK, A. L. and GARNSWORTHY, P. C., 2000. Changes in the conjugated linoleic acid content of milk from dairy cows throughout the year BSAS OCCASIONAL PUBLICATION. NUMB 25, 125-130
  • STOSIC, P. J., HADLEY, P. J. and COLES, G. C., 2000. Biting Fly Damage on Bovine Leather - An Alternative Source of "Light Spot" Damage Journal of the Society of Leather Technologists and Chemists. VOL 84(PART 4), 159-164
  • MANN, G. E., MANN, S. J., FREESTON-SMITH, C., DANIEL, Z., MILES, M., GARNSWORTHY, P. and WEBB, R., 2000. An assessment of potential metabolic determinants of reproductive cycle problems identified through milk progesterone monitoring during the service period in lactating dairy cows PROCEEDINGS- BRITISH SOCIETY OF ANIMAL SCIENCE. 2000, 14
  • WEBB, R., GARNSWORTHY, P. C., GONG, J. G., ROBINSON, R. S. and WATHES, D. C., 2000. Consequences for reproductive function of metabolic adaptation to load BSAS OCCASIONAL PUBLICATION. NUMB 24, 99-112
  • GONG, J. G., ARMSTRONG, D. G., BAXER, G. and GARNSWORTHY, P. C., 1999. The effect of increased dietary intake on superovulatory response to FSH in heifers JOURNAL OF REPRODUCTION AND FERTILITY -ABSTRACT SERIES-. ISSUE 23, 47
  • UNAL, Y. and GARNSWORTHY, P. C., 1999. Estimation of intake and digestibility of forage-based diets in group-fed dairy cows using alkanes as markers Journal of Agricultural Science. VOL 133(PART 4), 419-426
  • ALLISON, R. D. and GARNSWORTHY, P. C., 1999. Milk production from dairy cows fed an alternative to fish meal PROCEEDINGS- BRITISH SOCIETY OF ANIMAL SCIENCE. 204
  • GARNSWORTHY, P. C. and WISEMAN, J., 1999. Rumen digestibility in dairy cows of starch in near-isogenic lines of wheat PROCEEDINGS- BRITISH SOCIETY OF ANIMAL SCIENCE. 90
  • GARNSWORTHY, P. C. and WEBB, R., 1999. The Influence of Nutrition on Fertility in Dairy Cows RECENT ADVANCES IN ANIMAL NUTRITION. 1999;, 39-58
  • GARNSWORTHY, P.C. and WISEMAN, J., 1999. Rumen digestibility in dairy cows of starch in near-isogenic lines of wheat. In: British Society of Animal Science 90
  • LOCK, A. L. and GARNSWORTHY, P. C., 1999. The occurrence of conjugated linoleic acid in the milk of dairy cows PROCEEDINGS- BRITISH SOCIETY OF ANIMAL SCIENCE. 209
  • UNAL, Y. and GARNSWORTHY, P. C., 1999. An alternative method of administering alkane markers for estimating intake in dairy cows PROCEEDINGS- BRITISH SOCIETY OF ANIMAL SCIENCE. 91
  • UNAL, Y. and GARNSWORTHY, P. C., 1999. Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy for estimating food intake in housed dairy cows PROCEEDINGS- BRITISH SOCIETY OF ANIMAL SCIENCE. 93
  • HENDERSON, A.R., GARNSWORTHY, P.C., NEWBOLD, J.R. and BUTTERY, P.J., 1998. The effect of asynchronous diets on the function of the rumen in the lactating dairy cow. In: Proceedings of the British Society of Animal Science 1998 19
  • WEBB, R., GARNSWORTHY, P.C., GONG, J., ROBINSON, R.S. and WATHES, D.C., 1998. Consequences for reproductive function of metabolic adaptation to load. In: Metabolic Stress in Dairy Cows British Society of Animal Science, Penicuik, UK. 10
  • GARNSWORTHY, P.C., 1998. Incorporating writing and presentation skills into the animal science curriculum. In: How to Prepare and Write Scientific Papers, Proceedings of EAAP Satellite Symposium II 27-35
  • HENDERSON, A. R., GARNSWORTHY, P. C., NEWBOLD, J. R. and BUTTERY, P. J., 1998. The effect of asynchronous diets on the function of the rumen in the lactating dairy cow PROCEEDINGS- BRITISH SOCIETY OF ANIMAL SCIENCE. 19
  • GARNSWORTHY, P.C., 1998. Using a model dairy cow to help animal production students learn ration formulation. In: Designing Virtual Learning Environments, Proceedings of the Second DEMETER & AQUA-TNET ICT Workshop for European Education in Agriculture and Related Sciences See
  • GARNSWORTHY, P.C., 1997. Fats in dairy cow diets. In: Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition Nottingham University Press, Nottingham. 87-104
  • UNAL, Y., GARNSWORTHY, P. C. and GORTON, P., 1997. The use of n-alkanes for prediction of intake in dairy cows PROCEEDINGS- BRITISH SOCIETY OF ANIMAL SCIENCE. 137
  • WEBB, R., GARNSWORTHY, P.C., GONG, J.G., GUTIERREZ, C.G., LOGUE, D., CRAWSHAW, W.M. and ROBINSON, J.J., 1997. Nutritional influence on subfertility in cattle. In: Proceedings of Cattle Fertility Conference University of Nottingham, Nottingham. 13-19
  • WISEMAN, J. and GARNSWORTHY, P.C., 1997. The role of lipids in animal feeds. In: Lipid Technologies and Applications Marcel Dekker, Inc, New York, USA. 557-577
  • ALLISON, R.D. and GARNSWORTHY, P.C., 1997. The addition of lactose to the diets of dairy cows fed protected fats PROCEEDINGS- BRITISH SOCIETY OF ANIMAL SCIENCE. 10
  • GARNSWORTHY, P.C., 1996. Response by dairy cows to supplements containing protected fat and protein with and without lactose. In: Proceedings of 47th Annual Meeting of the European Association for Animal Production, Lillehammer 166
  • GARNSWORTHY, P. C., 1996. The effects on milk yield and composition of incorporating lactose into the diet of dairy cows given protected fat Animal Science. VOL 62(NUMBER 1), 1-4
  • GARNSWORTHY, P. C., 1996. Response by dairy cows to supplements containing protected fat and protein with and without lactose BOOK OF ABSTRACTS OF THE ANNUAL MEETING- EUROPEAN ASSOCIATION FOR ANIMAL PRODUCTION. 47th, 166
  • GARNSWORTHY, P. C., 1996. Effects of feeding lactose with protected fat and protein on milk production of cows in mid lactation BRITISH SOCIETY OF ANIMAL SCIENCE WINTER MEETING. 7
  • HOLDER, P., BUTTERY, P. J. and GARNSWORTHY, P. C., 1995. The effect of dietary asynchrony on rumen nitrogen recycling in sheep BRITISH SOCIETY OF ANIMAL SCIENCE WINTER MEETING. 70
  • SINCLAIR, L.A., GARNSWORTHY, P.C., NEWBOLD, J.R. and BUTTERY, P.J., 1995. Effects of synchronizing the rate of dietary energy and nitrogen release in diets with a similar carbohydrate composition on rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in sheep Journal of Agricultural Science. 124(3), 463
  • MOSS, A. R., GIVENS, D. I. and GARNSWORTHY, P. C., 1995. The effect of supplementing grass silage with barley on digestibility, in sacco degradability, rumen fermentation and methane production in sheep at two levels of intake ANIMAL FEED SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. VOL 55(NUMBER 1/2), 9
  • MOSS, A. R., GIVENS, D. I. and GARNSWORTHY, P. C., 1994. The effect of alkali treatment of cereal straws on digestibility and methane production by sheep ANIMAL FEED SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. VOL 49(NUMBER 3/4), 245
  • SINCLAIR, L.A., GARNSWORTHY, P.C., NEWBOLD, J.R. and BUTTERY, P.J., 1993. The effect of sychronizing the rate of dietary energy and nitrogen release on rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in sheep Journal of Agricultural Science. 120, 251-263
  • GARNSWORTHY, P. C. and STOKES, D. T., 1993. The nutritive value of wheat and oat silages ensiled on three cutting dates JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE -CAMBRIDGE-. VOL 121(NUMBER 2), 233
  • GARNSWORTHY, P. C., 1993. The effects of feeding a polymer gel to dairy cows in early lactation WINTER MEETING- BRITISH SOCIETY OF ANIMAL PRODUCTION. 95
  • GARNSWORTHY, P. C., LIGHTOWLER, T. K., WOOLLEY, H. L. and CHARLES, D. R., 1993. Some Effects of Temperature and Humidity on Dairy Cows in Britain ASAE PUBLICATION. NO 03/93, 1139-1145
  • SINCLAIR, L.A., GARNSWORTHY, P.C., NEWBOLD, J.R. and BUTTERY, P.J., 1993. Effects of synchronising dietary nitrogen and energy supply in diets with a similar carbohydrate composition on rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in sheep Animal Production. 56, 446
  • SINCLAIR, L. A., GARNSWORTHY, P. C., NEWBOLD, J. R. and BUTTERY, P. J., 1993. Effect of synchronizing the rate of dietary energy and nitrogen release on rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in sheep JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE -CAMBRIDGE-. VOL 120(NUMBER 2), 251
  • SINCLAIR, L. A., GARNSWORTHY, P. C., NEWBOLD, J. R. and BUTTERY, P. J., 1993. Effects of synchronising dietary nitrogen and energy supply in diets with a similar carbohydrate composition on rumen fermentaion and microbial protein synthesis in sheep WINTER MEETING- BRITISH SOCIETY OF ANIMAL PRODUCTION. 111
  • JONES, G. P. and GARNSWORTHY, P. C., 1993. The Effect of Body Condition at Calving and Dietary Fibre and Starch Concentrations on Dry-Matter Intake and Performance in Dairy Cows WORLD CONFERENCE ON ANIMAL PRODUCTION. VOL 2, 139-140
  • GARNSWORTHY, P. C. and JONES, G. P., 1993. The effects of dietary fibre and starch concentrations on the response by dairy cows to body condition at calving ANIMAL PRODUCTION -GLASGOW-. VOL 57(NUMBER 1), 15
  • SINCLAIR, L.A., GARNSWORTHY, P.C., NEWBOLD, J.R. and BUTTERY, P.J., 1992. The effect of dietary nitrogen and energy synchronisation on rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in sheep Winter Meeting- British Society of Animal Production. 5
  • ROYLE, C., GARNSWORTHY, P. C., MCARTHUR, A. J. and MEPHAM, T. B., 1992. Effects of frequent milking on heart rate and other physiological variables in dairy cows PUBLICATION- EUROPEAN ASSOCIATION FOR ANIMAL PRODUCTION. VOL 65, 237
  • SINCLAIR, L.A., GARNSWORTHY, P.C., BEARDSWORTH, P., FREEMAN, P. and BUTTERY, P.J., 1991. The use of cytosine as a marker to estimate microbial protein synthesis in the rumen Animal Production. 52, 592
  • SINCLAIR, L.A., GARNSWORTHY, P.C., NEWBOLD, J.R. and BUTTERY, P.J., 1991. Formulation of diets for ruminants based upon synchrony of supply of nitrogen, organic matter and carbohydrates in the rumen during the day. Proceedings of 42nd Conference, European Association of Animal Production, Berlin; Rome, EAAP; 366-367 In: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society.
  • LEES, J A, OLDHAM, J D, HARESIGN, W and GARNSWORTHY, P C, 1990. The effect of patterns of rumen fermentation on the response by dairy cows to dietary protein concentration. The British journal of nutrition. 63(2), 177-86
  • NEWBOLD, J.R., GARNSWORTHY, P.C., COLE, D.J., HARESIGN, W. and BUTTERY, P.J., 1988. Responses of British friesian steers with or without implants of oestradiol-17B to undegradable dietary protein Animal Production. 46, 181-193
  • JONES, G.P. and GARNSWORTHY, P.C., 1988. The effects of body condition at calving and dietary protein content on dry matter intake and performance in lactating dairy cows given diets of low energy content Animal Production. 47, 321-333

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