This module aims to examine patients' responses to illness and treatment and to consider the impact of psychological and social factors on health and health-related behaviour. You’ll cover a variety of topics through lectures, self-directed learning and problem-based seminars.
Cardiovascular, Respiratory and Haematology
This module provides an introduction to the basic anatomy and physiology of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems together with fundamentals in haematology. The physiological control mechanisms, the pathophysiology and pharmacological approaches to treating common disease states are also discussed. There are practical classes and workshops which to complement the lectures.
Clinical Laboratory Sciences (1)
This module develops your understanding of the scientific basis of clinical practice. In particular, the module develops your knowledge of normal and abnormal structure and function and the natural history of human disease especially in reference to causation, genetic factors in disease and the body's defence mechanisms and response to disease. This is delivered by lectures, case studies, directed reading, private study, and workshops.
Clinical Communication Skills (1)
You’ll cover a variety of topics including verbal communication, social Interaction, non-verbal communication, how to write a reflective portfolio, interviewing skills, communicating with children, explanation skills and communicating with people whose first language is not English. These skills are a necessary pre-requisite for practising clinical medicine.
Early Clinical and Professional Development
This module aims to introduce you to the knowledge, skills and attitudes that you will require to practice clinical medicine. These are a necessary pre-requisite for practising clinical medicine; the OSCE exam and the module overall must be passed to continue your studies
Human Development: Structure and Function
You will develop a working knowledge of human development and clinical anatomy of the thorax, neck, upper limb and lower limb. In addition, you’ll consider the basic mechanism of disease development for some common conditions. The anatomy classes make use of dissection as a method for students to explore the structural, functional and clinical anatomy of the human body. Studies of surface anatomy and radiographic images will also be used to introduce you to some of the methods of clinical examination.
Human Development and Tissue Differentiation
This module will develop your working knowledge of cell biology, early human development and the differentiation of cells into the tissues of the body. Also the basic skills of light microscopy will be taught and some fundamental histological knowledge of tissues will be acquired to enable you to differentiate between the morphology of different normal tissues. In addition to looking at normal structure and function, there is an opportunity to consider the basic mechanism of disease development at the cellular and tissue level for some common conditions. This is a lecture based course, with supporting microscopy practicals.
Molecular Basis of Medicine
This module considers the chemical basis of protein structure and factors that influence it. You’ll consider how enzymes function as biological catalysts, basic metabolism, with a focus on the role of ATP and the pathways related to its transduction. Other considerations made in relation to proteins structure including the metabolism of polysaccharides, lipids and amino acids, basic principles of control and integration of metabolism, structure and function of DNA, DNA replication structure, transcription mechanism and function of RNA as well as other factors that influence its structure.
Public Health and Epidemiology
This module introduces the basic concepts of public health, epidemiology and statistical analysis. It looks at how these determinants affect the distribution of ill-health in the population, both from a UK and international perspective, and the range of interventions that may be used to tackle these issues. Key concepts in epidemiology, study design and basic statistical analysis are introduced.
Structure, Function and Pharmacology of Excitable Tissues
This module provides an introduction to the basic structure and function of the peripheral and autonomic nervous systems and the muscular and other organ systems they innervate. It includes cell-membrane physiology of excitable tissues (nerve and muscle), the organisation of the nervous system and its target tissues and an introduction to action of drugs on excitable tissues, with emphasis on the automatic nervous system. This module includes both tutor-led and student-centred learning. There are practical classes, including an introduction to data collection, analysis and presentation, and report writing.
Ailmentary System and Nutrition
This module provides an introduction to the alimentary system, and important aspects of nutrition and metabolism. You’ll cover basic physiology, pharmacology, anatomy and histology including several anatomy and histology sessions. The lecture programme follows the processing of food from the mouth to anus with individual lectures describing clinical problems found in the gastrointestinal system and their treatment. In addition, practical workshops will reinforce information about the physiology of gastric acid production and the pharmacology of gastrointestinal motility.
Applied Public Health
This module introduces the science of epidemiology and the principles of public health by exploring how these are applied within the three key domains of professional public health practice. You will explore the foundations of health protection, including prevention of communicable disease, outbreak management and aspects of emergency planning and response. You’ll learn how evidence derived from research and health economics is used to prioritise scarce healthcare resources and plan health improvement interventions, and you’ll develop practical skills in critically appraising such evidence.
Clinical Communication Skills (2)
This module builds upon and develops the skills acquired in ‘Communication Skills I’. The topics include: how to write a reflective portfolio, communicating with children, explanation skills, communicating with people whose first language is not English and communicating with people who are hearing impaired.
Clinical Laboratory Sciences (2)
This module helps you develop an understanding of the scientific basis of clinical practice. In particular the module aims to develop knowledge and understanding of normal and abnormal structure and function, the natural history of human disease focusing on causation and the body's defence mechanisms and response to disease. The main themes covered include: healing, cancer, genetic factors in disease, pathology of the vascular system, infective diseases, disorders of immunity, diseases of the blood, and failure of organ systems. This is delivered by lectures, case studies, directed reading, private study, and workshops.
Early Clinical and Professional Development (2)
This module continues the process of personal and professional development for future doctors. It comprises instruction and practice in basic clinical skills within the context of the professional settings and framework in which they will work. Clinical attachments in primary and secondary care are supported by regular seminars and practical sessions in order to introduce, rehearse and reinforce relevant knowledge, skills and attitudes.
Functional and Behavioural Neuroscience
This module provides a basic introduction to key aspects of the central nervous system including a general introduction to brain anatomy and function, the motor systems in health and disease, the somatosensory system and psychology and pharmacology of pain. You’ll cover many topics such as consciousness, sleep, arousal, use of anaesthetics and the neurobiology of epilepsy and its treatment among others.
The role of the limbic system in health and disease with particular reference to emotion and mood, the various mechanisms of memory attention and perception, causes and treatment of Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia, and the mechanisms and effects of drugs of abuse will also be explored. There are practical classes on brain dissection, memory and neurophysiological assessment. The course will conclude with clinical neurological demonstrations and a course review that will include feedback on the two private study assignments.
General and Biochemical Pharmacology
This module provides an introduction to the processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs in both a descriptive and mathematical (pharmacokinetics) manner. You’ll supplement this by considering the mechanisms of drug action and toxicity. The module will develop a working knowledge of the processes involved in the disposition of drugs from narrative and mathematical standpoints. You’ll learn practice in drug dose calculations and form an understanding of mechanisms of drug action, and an appreciation of important principles of drug toxicity. This module is mainly lecture-based, with a supporting workshop.
Human Development Structure and Function (2)
This module will deepen and extend the knowledge gained in human development structure and function (1) in year one. You’ll cover topics such as referred pain, introduction to the pelvis and perineum and its general organisation, the back and spinal cord, head injuries and cranial haemorrhages, the reproductive system among others. A clinical review of the spine, abdomen and pelvis, and head and neck will be carried out on this module. The teaching for this module includes lectures, tutorials, review sessions, practicals (including cadaveric dissection) and workshops.
Renal and Endocrine Systems
This module provides an introduction to both the renal and endocrine systems, key systems involved in whole body homeostasis. The introduction to the renal system will cover basic physiology, pharmacology and histology. Problem classes will examine the use of diuretics and disorders of acid-base balance and a clinical session will be included to deal with the consequences of renal failure. The introduction to the endocrine system will include the non-reproductive endocrine system with particular attention on pituitary, adrenal, thyroid and pancreatic function. The endocrine component of this module will include a problem-solving workshop on functional/clinical issues, histology CAL workshop (Virtual Microscope) and will include a review workshop. You’ll have 31 tutor-led classes for this module.
Defects in Development
This module will discuss different areas of development of the unborn baby, and give an overview of how development can go wrong. Important congenital defects and the impact that abnormal development can have later will be discussed. Topics covered include infertility, placentation, fetal growth, skeletal muscle development, heart development and teratogenesis. You’ll have a series of lectures at the start of the module followed up with workshops/seminars to assist your learning.
Diagnostic Imaging and Interpretation
In this module you’ll explore the imaging technologies available to the clinician and learn how to explain their interpretation and you’ll gain an appreciation of how such techniques are applied. In particular endoscopy, ultrasound, nuclear medicine, fluoroscopy, plain X-rays, CT and MRI scans will be studied in a practical context. In addition, the topics of histopathology/histocytology will be introduced. You’ll have lectures plus supporting practical classes in microscopy and imaging.In this module you’ll explore the imaging technologies available to the clinician and learn how to explain their interpretation and you’ll gain an appreciation of how such techniques are applied. In particular endoscopy, ultrasound, nuclear medicine, fluoroscopy, plain X-rays, CT and MRI scans will be studied in a practical context. In addition, the topics of histopathology/histocytology will be introduced. You’ll have lectures plus supporting practical classes in microscopy and imaging.
Introduction to Psychiatry
This module is designed to encourage you to learn more about psychiatry before your Year Four placement. The course aims to unravel the field and considers how psychiatric practice differs relative to the traditional medical models of medicine and surgery. You’ll also consider the media portrayal of the specialty, the political mental health agenda, and ethical dilemmas arising in psychiatric practice and a snapshot of the remits of different sub-specialties during this module. You’ll have two field trips to psychiatric hospitals, where you’ll be given a tour of the ward and introduced to a patient by a clinician and you’ll participate in 13 hours of seminars.
In this module you will build on your knowledge to extend and deepen your understanding of the variety and properties of infectious agents, the laboratory procedures used in isolation and identification of pathogens and antibiotic sensitivity testing, and how these can be applied to diagnosis, treatment and management of infection. This will predominantly be within a laboratory environment employing practical exercises and tutorial sessions based around additional demonstration materials.
This module will extend your knowledge of the role that molecular diagnostics plays in modern healthcare. This will enable you to appreciate the development of novel approaches to understand the mechanisms of disease. Topics covered include molecular genetics and disease real-time PCR, chips and microarrays, Mass Spectrometric Approaches (MSA), infectious diseases pharmacogenetics, SNP analysis and wave technology. You’ll also explore mutation detection, genotype/phenotype correlations and proteomic aspects of disease gene therapy. Activities consist of interactive lecture sessions including a discussion of the particular technology followed by practical applications illustrated using clinical data.
Molecular Immunology and Autoimmunity
This module builds on previous learning allowing you to extend and deepen your understanding of molecular and cellular aspects of adaptive immunity. You’ll also gain knowledge and understanding of the mechanistic basis of autoimmunity. This will also enable you to appreciate the development of novel forms of immunotherapy for autoimmune and other diseases. You’ll cover a variety of related topics including adaptive immunity and autoimmunity, MHC and antigen presentation, genetic factors in autoimmunity and immunotherapy of autoimmune disease among others. There will be 12 hour-long lectures for this module.
This module addresses the basic mechanisms of signal transduction by which either classical hormones or more recently discovered cytokines can, through their specific receptors, regulate events inside cells. The clinical conditions and diseases considered in this section of the course have been chosen because there is a good molecular understanding of the events underlining the pathological conditions to be studied. Many of the conditions described are common to physicians in all hospitals. The lectures provide an insight into how modern molecular medicine has helped in the diagnosis, understanding and treatment of these common conditions.
This module consists of 11 Problem-Based Learning (PBL) seminar/workshops to consider three clinical cases. The cases encompass clinical scenarios and basic medical science covered in semesters one to three. You’ll be divided into groups and each group will be given a case to investigate, you’ll then present the findings and clinical reasoning in a group presentation.
The third year begins with a research project and an accompanying Research Methods module, and two specialty advanced medical science modules usually chosen from subjects related to the project. Two modules will then prepare you for the first clinical phase which cover infections and anti-microbials, and therapeutics before you begin clinical work in your Clinical Practice and Community Follow-Up modules.
In this module some topics will be taught centrally to all third year students and others within the homebase where your research project is located. The module includes the following topics: literature retrieval and creation and management of a bibliography; scientific writing including the presentation of research data; study methods and study design including formulating and testing hypotheses; evidence based medicine; human and animal research ethics; critical analysis of a scientific paper; statistical analysis of research data.
Honours Year Project
In your chosen area for your research, you’ll spend Year Three working on your Honours Year project in which you will carry out your project to test the hypothesis formulated in the research methods module. The form of the project can vary and may be based on laboratory work, audit, patient studies or an extended literature review with proof of critical engagement. A submission of around 10,000 words is expected as your project write-up. A range of optional modules related to Research Project are shown at the bottom.
The Treatment and Prevention of Infection
In this module you’ll build on previous learning to acquire knowledge, skills and attitudes of direct clinical relevance for the management of infection, particularly in a hospital setting. The module is divided into three parts; the general properties of antimicrobial agents, the general principles of the management of infection and antimicrobial chemotherapy in practice. You’ll have around nine hours per week of lectures, the majority of which are delivered by consultant microbiologists, or an antimicrobial pharmacist, from a local partner hospital.
Clinical Phase 1 - Clinical Practice
This 17-week intensive module is delivered via a combination of ward-based placements in NHS Trusts within the East Midlands and University-based teaching delivered centrally. You’ll be building on previous learning whilst acquiring knowledge, skills and attitudes required for assessment and management of patients with a core spectrum of clinical presentations and conditions. This will predominantly be within a hospital setting (wards, out-patients, and operating theatres) but also some in community practice (GP surgeries).
Clinical Phase 1 - Community Follow-Up Project
The community follow-up project provides a unique opportunity for students to evaluate medical care across the primary/secondary care interface by focusing on the individual experiences of one particular patient. During clinical phase I (Clinical Practice) pairs of students will choose one patient to evaluate their health care experience. You’ll be expected to discuss the patient's total experience of illness, its psychological, social and physical effects, and how the process of care has affected them and their family. This will provide you with information to compile a written project and presentation based on your learning from patients’ experiences.
Clinical Phase 1 - Therapeutics
In this module you’ll have some generic sessions relating to pharmacology and prescribing/drug choice covering six key areas: hypertension and Ischaemic heart disease, heart failure, respiratory diseases, gastrointestinal and hepatic disorders, metabolic disorders and central nervous system disorders. Therapeutics (THP) enables students to acquire an understanding of core disease management. You’ll study clinical pharmacology to build on previous knowledge and studying for this module will be via online resources and independent study.
Optional Modules for Year Three Research Project
Antibiotics: Origins, Targets and the Bacterial Resistome
This module will focus on antibiotics that target two essential cell processes in bacteria: DNA replication and gene transcription. Lectures will cover the fundamental principles of these processes, and the origins, structures and functions of antibiotics developed against them. You’ll then assess how bacteria gain resistance to these antibiotics through mutation and selection, and the known mechanisms of how resistance spreads through microbial communities.
Anti-Cancer Therapies and Cardiovascular Disease
This module focuses on how cancer therapies have developed in recent years, and how the long-term cardiovascular effects of these treatments in cancer survivors should be considered. Six lectures will cover: an introduction to cancer therapy, the role of VEGF in tumour angiogenesis, anti-VEGF cancer therapies, cardiovascular consequences of anti-cancer treatment, the role of alternative splicing and molecular targeting in cancer and future strategies for cancer therapy.
This module provides a clinical overview of cancer including: the molecular biology of cancer, cancer angiogenesis, pre-clinical modelling of cancer, clinical Trials and Adjuvant Treatments in Cancer, and breast cancer: biology and treatment and new biological treatments for cancer. You’ll have nine hours of direct teaching with further home-based reading assignments and self-directed learning.
This module will explore microbiology in the clinical environment, in particular: medical virology in the context of cancer, pathogenesis, the clinical consequences infections and their management, and prevention and management and control of hospital-acquired infections. You’ll have seven 1-hour taught sessions although the module is largely self-directed learning
Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuropsychiatric Disorders
In this module you’ll cover key topics including a revision of functional neuroanatomy and understanding functional connectivity between brain regions, focussing specifically on brain circuits underlying cognitive function and an introduction to imaging methods (EEG,MRI, fMRI). You’ll build your knowledge and understanding of major neuropsychiatric disorders and current research in these fields including schizophrenia, attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, depression and, autism and disorders of social cognition.
This module will provide you with a conceptual framework relevant to embryonic, foetal, neonatal, childhood and adolescent growth and development. You’ll be introduced to the pervasive concept of human development as a programmed evolution in structure and function of the brain. You’ll explore the need for development in human neuroscience with reference to brain embryology; pre-term birth, brain tumours; and epilepsies, and other current clinical research areas, from new-borns to teenagers. You’ll have six hours of direct contact time.
Clinical Phase 2 - Child Health
During this module you’ll be building on previous learning and acquiring knowledge, skills and attitudes required for assessment and management of children with a core spectrum of clinical presentations and conditions. This will predominantly be within a hospital setting (wards, outpatients, operating theatres) but will also spend time in a community setting (clinics, schools, and nurseries). You’ll have a two-day introductory course before you begin your paediatric placements. These will consist of a clinical attachment with a consultant led firm in a paediatric unit, a one week attachment with paediatricians based in the community and a one week attachment with paediatric surgeons.
Clinical Phase 2 - Dermatology, Ophthalmology, Otorhinolaryngology (Specials)
During this module you’ll be building on previous learning and acquiring knowledge, skills and attitudes required for assessment and management of patients with a core spectrum of clinical presentations and conditions, in each specialty. This will take place within the hospital setting, predominantly in speciality clinics. The clinics will be based in dermatology, ophthalmology and ear-nose-throat departments.
Clinical Phase 2 - Healthcare of the Elderly
During this module you will have an intensive block of learning in the speciality fields of geriatric medicine, old age psychiatry (OAP) and gerontology. You’ll have a three-day class-based introduction to the specifics of the field before your three-week clinical attachment begins. You’ll cover clinical problems, ethical issues and multidisciplinary working. There is a community focus, from a rehabilitation perspective and you’ll deal with complex disability and continuing care.
Clinical Phase 2 - Obstetrics and Gynaecology
In this module you’ll build your knowledge from previous learning on human reproductive biology and on some of the epidemiological and behavioural patterns of human sexuality and reproduction. You’ll be provided with an opportunity to study in and experience a clinical environment, observing the normal and abnormal processes of child bearing and the disorders both functional and organic of the human reproductive system. The teaching of genito-urinary medicine is also incorporated into the attachment. This module will take place in a 10-week block of learning predominantly within wards, out-patients, and operating theatres, but also some in community practice (at community gynaecology clinics and some community midwifery clinics).
Clinical Phase 2 - Psychiatry
This module teaches you the knowledge and skills relating to psychiatric theory and practice. You’ll have the opportunity to apply your learning in a clinical environment on your placement following an intensive introductory programme. In addition, you’ll develop appropriate attitudes and approaches to respond to individuals with psychological distress and mental disorders. This will be achieved through the clinical attachment, weekly central teaching, problem-based tasks and small group teaching.
Special Study Module
This module is designed to allow you to choose an area of specialty that you are interested in. Special Study Modules (SSM's) are an integral part of the Nottingham curriculum, enabling you to demonstrate certain mandatory competences while allowing choice in studying an area of particular interest to them. The purpose of the SSM's is the intellectual development of students through exploring in depth a subject of their choice. They also offer an opportunity for students to demonstrate attainment of professional behaviour. You’ll be based predominantly be within clinical settings (eg clinic, ward, emergency department, operating theatre, multidisciplinary team meeting) and in some cases there will be time spent in clinical and/or research laboratories, small group teaching and tutorials, depending on the nature of individual SSMs.
The modules we offer are inspired by the research interests of our staff and as a result may change for reasons of, for example, research developments or legislation changes. The above list is a sample of typical modules we offer, not a definitive list.