School of Biosciences

Image of Sean Mayes

Sean Mayes

Associate Professor in Crop Genetics, Faculty of Science


Research Summary

Dr Sean Mayes

Dr Sean Mayes Associate Professor in Crop Genetics Plant and Crop Sciences Biosciences Nottingham University, UK

Tel: +44 115 95 16234 Fax:+44 115 95 16060 Mobile: +44 7850 350 204 E-mail:

Dr Sean Mayes Theme Director for Biotechnology, Breeding and Seed Systems, Crops for the Future Research Centre c/o UNMC, Jalan Broga, Semeyih, Malaysia (UNMC)

Tel: +60 3 8924 8799 Fax: +60 3 8924 8798 Mobile: +60 103601203 E-mail:

Areas of Research Interest.

  • The dynamic change in plant genomes.
  • The exploitation of the genetic variation generated to produce genetic markers for marker-assisted breeding

Recent projects: 1. EU FP6 INCO-DEV 'BAMLINK' BAMLINK-A molecular, physiological, nutritional and end-user evaluation of Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc.) for semi-arid Africa and India (2006 - 2011). EU FP6 INCO-DEV; total budget £1.5 million; Co-ordination and £240K at Nottingham.

A Bambara groundnut plant from a cultivated landrace - seed are produced at the base of the plant. The wild (V. s. spontenea) form has a spreading habit). Many landraces are sensitive to long days and will flower, but not fill pods.

Nottingham University coordinated a 10 partner programme (EU: Nottingham, Denmark, Germany; Africa: Ghana, Botswana, Namibia, Tanzania; India: Bangalore, Rajastan, Gujurat) programme evaluating this underutilised drought tolerant African groundnut for potential contribution to food security in semi-arid environments, through the value chain. PI for molecular research.

2. The BBSRC wheat 'Big-Ears' project Building on research initiated by Dr John Foulkes (;, Prof. Matthew Reynolds, CIMMYT ( ) and Prof. Roger Sylvester-Bradley, ADAS ( and pursued through 2 PhD studentships, we have recently been awarded funding by the BBSRC to investigate the basis of 'ear fertility' in a Doubled Haploid population of a cross between UK winter wheat (Rialto) and a CIMMYT spring wheat 'large rachis' line (L14). Co-PI for molecular research.

A CIMMYT wheat parent ear (left) and UK Rialto (right)

Current Programmes:

1. BamYield BamYield is one of the eight approved Crops for the Future Research Centre (CFFRC; see below) research programmes. The focus is on using the extensive knowledge which the University of Nottingham and Partners worldwide have developed on the underutilised African legume, Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L) Verdc.). This grain legume is grown by around 1/3 million small-holder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa, as well as at lower levels in South East Asia, India and elsewhere. The species has adapted to produce yields when peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) fails under low rainfall conditions (<400mm p.a.) but also can produce yields under high rainfall conditions (>2000 mm p.a.). It is generally grown in poor soils, under traditional low-input agriculture and the drought tolerance makes it of potential importance under climate change scenarios which could alter rain patterns, particularly within Africa. However, as a species which has received little breeding effort it also has a number of problems which are preventing further uptake of this species as a part of food and nutritional security. In particular, most landraces are photoperiod sensitive which can lead to a lack of pod-filling if the day length exceeds 12 hours. In addition, few value added products exist, few cultivars have been developed and none through conventional crossing, the crop has yet to be officially registered in Indonesia and markets need assured supplies to investigate product development further.

BamYield aims to establish an international breeding programme for Bambara groundnut which will allow results from research in partner countries to be channelled into the breeding programme, allowing material to be developed and selected for a wide range of agro-ecological environments.

Recent, current and approved studentships on Bambara groundnut: Dr Odireleng Molosiwa "Genetic diversity and population structure analysis of Bambara groundnut [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.] landraces using morpho-agronomic characters and SSR markers" Genetic diversity analysis and development of new material for Botswana (PhD; Graduated July 2012; ; ministry of agriculture, grain legume breeder for Botswana)

Mr Faraz Khan "Combining Affymetrix, RNAseq and physical genome data - a multidimensional approach to transfer data from major crops to minor crops for Global Food Security" Combining multiple datasets within and across species (MRes project; Graduated December 2012; )

Dr Nariman Ahmad "Genetic analysis of plant morphology in bambara groundnut [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.]" Genetic mapping and trait analysis in Bambara groundnut ( ; lecturer at Sulaimani University, Iraq )

Mrs Endah Sri Redjeki "Genetic diversity and origin of Indonesian Bambara groundnut, stability and adaptability analysis and their controlled hybridisation." (awaiting viva; ; Senior lecturer at Muhammadiyah University, Gresik)

Ms Hui Hui Chai "Using tools developed in major species for analysis of minor species" (Third year; MIDAS UNMC-UK cross-campus scholarship; )

Mr Presidor Kendabie "Investigating photoperiod requirements in Bambara groundnut" (Second year PhD students; Vice-Chancellor Full Fees Scholarship;

Funded and pending studentships (see also figure 2 and 3 and CFFRC below) (Bam1-003) Metabolic and physiological traits associated with Bambara groundnut adaptation in contrasting environmental conditions. Supervisors: Dr Festo Massawe (Biosciences; UNMC), Dr Madya Mahmad Nor Bin Jafar (UniMAP), Dr Sean Mayes (Biosciences; SB/CFFRC), Dr David L Ndzi (UniMAP) Student: Mr Philip Cleasby

(Bam1-004) Mining the gene networks involved in water-stress response in bambara groundnut: a machine learning approach to translating traits in model species to minor crops Supervisors: Dr Jaume Bacardit (Computer Science; UP), Dr Sean Mayes (Biosciences, SB/CFFRC), Dr Festo Massawe (Biosciences; UNMC), and Prof Michael Holdsworth (Biosciences, SB). Student: To be confirmed

(Bam1-006) Developing new breeding approaches and genetic analysis in bambara groundnut - linkage and association analysis in MAGIC populations Supervisors: Dr Festo Massawe (Biosciences, UNMC), Dr Sean Mayes (SB/CFFRC) Student: Mr Siise Aliyu

(Bam1-007) Combining Affymetrix, RNAseq and physical genome data - a multidimensional approach to transfer data from major crops to minor crops for Global Food Security Supervisors: Dr Sean Mayes (Biosciences SB/CFFRC), Chungui Lu (Biosciences SB), Festo Massawe (Biosciences, UNMC) - 100% Vice Chancellor PhD Student: Mr Faraz Khan

(Bam1-008) Mathematical modelling of canopy development Supervisors: Dr Marcus Tindall (Mathematics, Reading), Dr Sean Mayes, Dr Debbie Sparkes, Dr Erik Murchie (Biosciences, SB), Dr Festo Massawe (Biosciences, UNMC) and Asha Karunaratne, CFFRC) - jointly funded between Reading and UNMC/CFFRC Student: to be appointed

(Bam1-009) Investigating the control of fertility in Bambara groundnut Supervisors: Prof Zoe Wilson (Biosciences, SB), Dr Sean Mayes (Biosciences SB/CFFRC), Dr Festo Massawe (UNMC) Student: Ms Bhavya Bhanaraj

Figure 2: current and future planned post-graduate programmes within the BamYield programme.

Figure 3: Linkage within the BamYield programme The ability to translate tools and data generated in major crop and model species into Bambara groundnut (as an exemplar) is needed to be able to make substantial breeding progress in this species at minimal cost. This is combined with 'in-species' tool and information generation where needed and feeds into an international breeding programme.

This alone is insufficient, as the post-production bottlenecks which prevent further uptake of this crop must be addressed and these underpin success.

BamYield 2012-2017; PI molecular and Programme Director of BamYield (SB/CFFRC); PI (UNMC) Festo Massawe. £491K to date, (studentships, research costs)

2. Oil palm molecular genetics and marker-assisted breeding.

1. Pump priming grant: Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) and XSpecies for oil palm: £51,686; 2008-2010 (Mayes, Roberts, May, Broadley, Massawe, Alderson, Chin)

2. AAR-UNMC-SB industrially sponsored grant: "Towards the development of a molecular tool box to verify the purity of hybrid tenera in the commercial populations of oil palm seedlings"; £159,000; 2008 -2012 (Massawe, Mayes, Alderson, Chin, San, Roberts)

3. ERC Fellowship, Prof Malcolm Bennett. "FUTUREROOTS"; £2.2 Million; Co-PI on Mapping and QTL analysis of modified root structure and effects.

Figure 4. A dendrogram created by DArT Pty Ltd (Canberra, Australia) based on a total of 89 DNA samples supplied by the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB), Applied Agricultural Resources Sdn Bhd (AAR), FELDA Holdings Bhd (FELDA) and Sime Darby Plantations (SD) A total of 2700 markers have provisionally been identified as polymorphic within and across samples of the two species, E. guineensis and E. oleifera. Within E. guineensis (African oil palm and the main commercial species) over 1100 markers have been identified as potentially polymorphic.

Markers derived from the DArT microarray based technique were tested for levels of polymorphism in two crosses, with the number of markers segregating in the individuals of the controlled crosses ranging from 150 to 450 (see Figure 5 a)

The development of the DArT Seq approach by Dr Andrzej Kilian at DArT Pty Ltd (Canberra, Australia) has allowed a sequenced based approach to interrogating the genotype-representation. This leads to all markers being associated with a 64bp sequence tag and a mixture of classical DArT markers (presence/absence) and SNP markers being produced.

Figure 5a) A draft linkage group in the T128-selfed population of MPOB with the integration of DArT array markers ('op') with other marker types, including AFLP ('E'). Figure 5b) Bambara groundnut (V. subterrranea L.); DipC x Tiga Necaru (77 lines at F3); Linkage group derived from a mix of DArT SNP (10001…), Array-based DArT (bgP) and microsatellites (PRIMER X). Group figure has been overlapped in the centre from two parts produced by MapChart. Figure 5c) High density DArT SNP linkage group in the F1 date palm population; 'Locus X' indicates SSR markers. Figure 5d) Figure 8. Spaced marker map based on DArT (D), DArT SNP (S) and CIRAD SSR (mEg), allowing the linkage group to be identified as LG1 according to the map by Billotte et al., 2005.

Three crosses are now under construction using this marker type:

- Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L Verdc); DipC x Tiga Necaru. Population segregates for a number of traits, including; internode length, peduncle length, stomatal density, seed yield, photoperiod sensitivity and is currently being analysed through an XSpecies transcriptomic eQTL approach to identify regions of the genome harbouring genes responsive to drought stress. By overlaying the XSpecies datasets onto the Soybean Affymetrix Chip (used here) we will test whether we can generate a 'pseudo' physical map for Bambara groundnut, based on the Soybean one.

- Date palm (P. dactylifera L.); two populations (F1 and BC1; 96 samples, common paternal parent) Date palm contrasts sharply with oil palm as it is able to survive in hot and arid conditions through tapping underground water supplies. It also converts carbohydrates into sugar in the fruit, whereas oil palm converts carbohydrates into oil. Date palm is diecious, having two defined sexes of palms. To date this has undermined efforts to develop breeding programmes in this species. The majority of propagation has been through basal offshoots or through somatic embryogenesis. However, the recent release of the draft genome sequence of date palm (Al-Dous et al., 2011) has resolved this issue, although very few controlled crosses exist and Ms Al-Ghaliya Al-Mamari (; awaiting viva; Omani Government PhD scholarship) has formally mapped SSR markers in two of these.

- Oil palm tenera-selfed crosses, 2 crosses from sib-tenera (57, 44 palms) The presence of published microsatellites (here from the work of Billotte et al., 2005) permit the developed linkage groups to be aligned to earlier maps. Ms Siou Ting Gan (; UNMC PhD Scholarship; writing up) has constructed a combined SSR and DArT Seq map in two related tenera-selfed populations.

3. Geospatial databases

- 1. Global Food Security Pump priming grant: Suchith Anand, Didier Leibovici, Jeremy Morley, Amir Pourabdollah, Mike Jackson, (NGI) Sean Mayes, Rumiana Ray (Plant Sciences; crop genetics; wheat pathology) Charlie Hodgman (CPIB), Chungui Lu (CPIB, Biosciences; Integrative biology) Kin-Chow Chang (Veterinary Medicine & Science; Animal genetics / breeding) Sayed Azam-Ali (Biosciences, UNMC; eco-physiologist; CEO of CFFRC) Gavin White (Veterinary Medicine & Science; Animal infection / disease) Christine Dodd (Food Sciences, Biosciences; Zoonotic pathogen dynamics) Wyn Morgan (Economics; Imperfect competition in vertically related markets) Sarah Jewitt (Geography; Gender and environmental management, esp. India) Susanne Seymour (Geography; Environmental governance; sustainable agriculture) Tuong Thuy Vu (Geography, Malaysia Campus) Global Food Security Theme pump priming award (£20K)

- 2. Ray et al., GRASP Wheat workshop; Tripartite funding (£5K)

- 3. Jackson et al., Geospatial Resource for Agricultural Species and Pests (GRASP)-GFS; BBSRC Tools and Resources (£130K; 2013 - 2014)

Figure 6. Prototype GRASP developed during the pump priming phase. The database is a genotype-object, geospatially-anchored database which is planned to allow agro-ecological matching, trait hypothesis construction and the running of climate change scenarios for future breeding requirements; exemplars are Bambara groundnut and wheat pathogens.

Figure 7 Initial schema for GRASP-GFS

4. Crops for the Future Research Centre

The majority of the world's calories come from just three cereal species, wheat, rice and maize. Predicted increases in world population, changing climate and a need to reduce inputs (overall) to make farming more sustainable means that agriculture will need to adapt in the future.

Many thousands of crop species have been used at some level in the past and some of these underutilised, minor or neglected crop species could complement the current staple crops, particularly in terms of nutrition.

Figure 8 Artist's impression of the three CFFRC domes, next to our University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus at Semenyih, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Crops for the Future (

Crops for the Future Research Centre (

Crops for the Future Research Centre (CFFRC) is the first international Centre dedicated to research on underutilised crops. The Centre was founded with a generous donation from the Malaysian Government which covers staff, infrastructure and running costs until 2017. The CEO, Prof Sayed Azam-Ali was appointed in August 2011 and the Centre currently has a staff of 20 (Jan 2013). It is a limited company without shareholders with the Government of Malaysia and the University of Nottingham in Malaysia as guarantors. As such, any 'profits' which might be generated are used for further research and CFFRC works with our sister organisation Crops for the Future (CEO Dr. Michael Hermann; co-hosted by Bioversity Asian and Pacific Office, Kuala Lumpur and by the University of Nottingham in Malaysia, KL) on underutilised crops.

CFFRC has a remit to carryout quantitative and comparative research on underutilised crop species for food, feed, health, nutrition, energy and biomaterials.

Underutilised crops are often underutilised for a reason and CFFRC is taking a Research Value chain approach, driven by end-use and end-user demand, to identify specific problems with candidate crops and commission and/or undertake research to try to resolve that problem. Only by taking a holistic approach is it likely to be possible to resolve issues at each point in the supply chain, from basic genetics through to governmental policy, to allow the valuable traits within these crops to be exploited.

CFFRC is appointing expertise in each of the above Themes, to ensure that any programme developed will have research input from across the value chain.

Six initial programmes have been identified and five are currently running;

CropBase: A knowledge-base and decision support tool for UCs FoodPlus: the nutritional value of food; from soil to consumer BamYield: An international breeding and research programme on Bambara groundnut as an exemplar BiomassPlus: Generating energy within a plantation context FishPlus: identifying alternative sources of vegetable feed for aquaculture and improving fish diets for health

A recent aerial photo of UNMC.

Ground clearance for the CFFRC domes began before late 2012 and it is expected that the visitor centre dome will be completed by the end of 2013, with the second and third domes completed by mid-2014


The labs and facilities under construction complement those available at UNMC and locally. Until functioning, CFFRC will use the UNMC labs and facilities

CFFRC Field Station is being constructed in 50Ha of old oil palm plantation near to the UNMC campus and this will become our primary field site, linked through partners to field sites around the world

The field station should be constructed by the end of April 2013.

Main scientific contacts:

Prof Sayed Azam-Ali

CEO; Physiologist

Prof Sue Walker

Theme Director Physiology/agronomy Programme Director, CropBase

Prof Aik Chin Soh

Director CFFRC Field Station Programme Director, BiomassPlus

Dr Sean Mayes

Theme Director, Biotech., Breeding Programme Director, BamYield Programme Director, CFFRCPLUS

Mr Azizi Meoh Ngah

Programme Director, FoodPlus

Mr Max Herriman

Programme Director, FishPlus

Dr Patrick O'Reilly

Programme Manager, BamYield

Dr Mehdi Maqbool

Programme Manager, FoodPlus

Dr I. Al-Shareef

Programme Manager, BiomassPlus

Recent Papers

1. Cheng, A. Mayes, S., Dalle, G., Demissew, S. and Massawe, F. (in press) Diversifying crops for food and nutrition security - a case of teff Biological Reviews

2. Teh, C-K, Ong, A-L., Kwong, Q-B., Apparow, S., Chew, FT., Mayes, S., Mohamed, M., Appleton, D. and Kulaveerasingam, H. (in press) Genome-wide association study identifies three key loci for high mesocarp oil content in perennial crop oil palm Scientific Reports.

3. Abberton, M., Batley, J., Bentley, A., Bryant, J., Cai, H., Cockram, J., Costa de Oliveira, A., Cseke, L., Dempewolf, H., De Pace, C., Edwards, D., Gepts, P., Greenland, A., Hall, A., Henry, R., Hori, K., Howe, G., Hughes, S., Humphreys, M., Lightfoot, D., Marshall, A., Mayes, S., Nguyen, H., Ogbonnaya, F., Ortiz, R., Paterson, A., Tuberosa, R., Valliyodan, B., Varshney, R. and Yano, M. (2015) Global agricultural intensification during climate change: a role for genomics. The Plant Biotechnology Journal

4. Xie, Q., Mayes, S. and Sparkes, D.L. (2015) Carpel size, grain filling, and morphology determine individual grain weight in wheat Journal of Experimental Botany doi:10.1093/jxb/erv378

5. Kendabie, K., Massawe, F. and Mayes, S. (in press) Developing genetic mapping resources from landrace-derived genotypes that differ for photoperiod sensitivity in bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L.) Aspects of Applied Biology 124;

6. Mayes, S., Kendabie, P., Ho, WK., Massawe, F. and Azam-Ali, S. (in press) Increasing the contribution that underutilised crops could make to food security - Bambara groundnut as an example Aspects of Applied Biology 124;

7. Kole, C., Muthamilarasan, M., Henry, R., Edwards, D., Sharma, R., Abberton, M., Batley,J., Bentley, A., Blakeney, M., Bryant, J., Cai, H., Cakir, M., Cseke, L.J., Cockram, J., Costa de Oliveira, A., De Pace, C., Dempewolf, H., Ellison, S., Gepts, P., Greenland, A., Hall, A., Hori,K., Howe, T., Hughes, S., Humphreys, M.W. Iorizzo, M., Ismail, A.M., Marshall, A., Mayes, S., Nguyen, H.T., Ogbonnaya, F.C., Ortiz, R., Paterson, A.H., Simon, P.W., Tohme, J., Tuberosa, R., Valliyodan, B., Varshney, R.K., Wullschleger, S.D., Yano, M. and Prasad, M. (2015) Application of genomics-assisted breeding for generation of climate resilient crops: Progress and prospects. Frontiers in Plant Science: Plant Genetics and Genomic

8. Muhammad, YY, Mayes S & Massawe F (in press) Effects of short term water deficit stress on physiological characteristics of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc) South African Journal of Plant and Soil

9. Xie Q, Mayes S & Sparkes DL (2015). Spelt as a genetic resource for yield component improvement in bread wheat. Crop Science doi:10.2135/cropsci2014.12.0842

10. Leibovici, D.G., Meek, S., Anand, S., Santos, R., Morley, J., Jackson, M.J., Mayes, S., Ray, R., Hodgman, C., Baten, A., King, G, Brailsford, T., Vu, T., Karunaratne, A.S., Azman, R., Walker, S. and Azam-Ali, S (in press) Geospatial binding for transdisciplinary research in crop science: the GRASP-GFS initiative. In Advances in Geospatial Technology series; eds; Avraam Mavridis and Ioannis Ifadis; IGI Global.

11. Aliyu,S., Massawe. F.J. and Mayes, S. (2015) Beyond landraces: Developing improved germplasm resources for underutilized species - a case for Bambara groundnut Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews

12. Molosiwa, O., Aliyu, S., Stadler, F., Mayes, K. Massawe, F., Kilian, A. and Mayes, S. (2015). SSR marker development, genetic diversity and population structure analysis of Bambara groundnut [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.] landraces Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution DOI 10.1007/s10722-015-0226-6

13. Wong, W.C., Teo, C.J., Wong, C.K., Mayes, S., Rajinder, S. and Soh, A.C. (in press) Development of an effective SSR-based fingerprinting system for commercial planting materials and breeding applications in oil palm. Journal of Oil Palm Research

14. Wong, Y.C., Kwong, Q.B., Lee, H.L., Ong, C.K., Mayes, S., Chew, F.T., Appleton, D.R. and Kulaveerasingam, H. (2014) Expression Comparison of Oil Biosynthesis Genes in Oil Palm Mesocarp Tissue Using Custom Array Microarrays 3, 263-281

15. Graham, N.S., Hammond, J.P., Lysenko, A., Mayes, S.....King, G.J. et al. (2014) Genetical and comparative genomics of Brassica under altered Ca supply identifies Arabidopsis Ca-transporter orthologues. Plant Cell 24(6)

16. Gaju, R., Ribas, G.V., Mayes, S., Sparkes, D., Reynolds, M., Crossa, J. and Foulkes, J. (2014) Relationships between physiological traits, grain number and yield potential in a wheat DH population of large spike phenotype Field Crops Research v.164 p126-135

17. Ting, N.-C., Jansen, J., Mayes, S., Massawe, F., Sambanthamurthi, R., Cheng-Li, L.O., Chin, C.W., Arulandoo, X., Seng, T-Y., Syed Alwee, S.S.R., Ithinin, M. and Rajinder Singh. (2014) High density SNP and SSR-based genetic maps of two independent oil palm hybrids BMC Genomics, 15:309.

18. Lai, H-M., May, S.T. and Mayes, S. (2014) Pigeons: A Novel GUI Software for Analysing and Parsing High Density Heterologous Oligonucleotide Microarray Probe Level Data Microarrays 3(1), 1-23;

19. Khidr, S.K., Hardy, I.C.W., Zaviezo, T. and Mayes, S. (2014) Development of microsatellite markers and detection of genetic variation between Goniozus wasp populations. Journal of Insect Science: Vol. 14 | Article 43

Acta Horticulturae 2013;

E.S. Redjeki, S. Mayes and S. Azam-Ali (2013) Evaluating the Stability and Adaptability of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verd.) Landraces in Different Agro-ecologies

N.S. Ahmad, S.M. Basu, E.S. Redjeki, E. Murchie, F. Massawe, S. Azam-Ali, A. Kilian and S. Mayes (2013) Developing Genetic Mapping and Marker-Assisted Breeding Techniques in Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea L)

S. Mayes, S. Basu, O, Molosiwa, E. Sri Redjeki, N. Ahmad, F. Khan, S. Zehra, S. Noah, K. Mayes and J. Roberts, F. Stadler, F. Massawe, A. Kilian and S. Azam-Ali (2013)Molecular Analysis of Bambara Groundnut, an Underutilised African Legume Crop as Part of the BAMLINK Project - What Lessons Can We Learn?

H.H. Chai, H-M. Lai, H. Guo, S. Basu, F. Massawe, S. Azam-Ali, N. Graham, M. Broadley, S. May and S. Mayes (2013) Developing XSpecies Approaches for Genomics and Transcriptomics - Using Resources Developed in Major Species for Research in Bambara Groundnut

O. Molosiwa, S. Basu, F. Stadler, S. Azam-Ali and S. Mayes (2013) Assessment of Genetic Variability of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc) Accessions Using Morphological Traits and Molecular Markers

20. Ho, W.K., Ooi, S.E., Mayes, S., Namasivayam, P., Ong-Abdullah, M. and Chin, C.F. (2013) Methylation levels of a novel genetic element, EgNB3 as a candidate biomarker associated with the embryogenic competency of oil palm Tree Genetics & Genomes DOI: 10.1007/s11295-013-0625-9

21. Khidr, S.K., Mayes, S. and Hardy, I.C.W (2013) Primary and secondary sex ratios in a gregarious parasitoid with local mate competition. Behavioural Ecology doi:10.1093/beheco/ars181

22. Munoz-Concha, D., Mayes, S., Ribas, G. and Davey, M.R. (2012) Somatic embryogenesis from zygotic embryos and shoot-tips of the Chilean tree Gomortega keule Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture 109:123-130 23. Siva, R., Mayes, S., Behera, S.K., and C. Rajasekaran (2012) Anthraquinones dye production using root cultures of Oldenlandia umbellata L. Industrial Crops and Products 37; 415-419

24. Okukolu, B.A., Mayes, S., Stadler, F., Quat Ng,N., Fawole, I., Dumet, D., Azam-Ali, S.N., Gilbert, A.G and Kole, C. (2012) Genetic diversity in bambara groundnut (V. subterranea L verdc.) as revealed by phenotypic descriptors and DArT marker analysis. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 59; 347-258

25. Mayes, S., Massawe, F.J., Alderson, P.G., Roberts, J.A., Azam-Ali, S.N. and Hermann, M. (2011) The potential for underutilized crops to improve security of food production Journal of Experimental Botany 59; 347-258 11; 3701-3706

26. Hammond, JP, Mayes, S., Bowen, H.C., Graham, N.S., Hayden, R.M., Love, C.G., Spracklen, W.P., Wang, J., Welham, S.J., White, P.J., King, G.J., Broadley, M.R. (2011) Regulatory Hotspots Are Associated with Plant Gene Expression under Varying Soil Phosphorus Supply in Brassica rapa Plant Physiology, 156; 1230-1241

27. Devisetty, U.K., Mayes, K. and Mayes, S. (2010) The RAD51 and DMC1 homeologous genes of bread wheat: molecular characterisation and expression analysis. BMC Research Notes 3:245.

28. Rubyogo, J. C., Dickinson, M., Mayes, S. and Assefa, T. (2009) Assessment of Different Bean Seed Grades and Sources from Ethiopia Using Molecular Tools. Journal of New Seed 10:293-301.

29. Taah, K.J., Alderson, P.G., Power, J.B. and Mayes, S. (2009). Effects of auxin type, root length and shoot size on ex vitro survival of micropropagated avocado shoots. Ghana Journal of Horticulture 7: 18-25.

30. Mayes, S., Stadler, S., Basu, S., Murchie, E., Massawe, F., Kilian, A., Roberts, J.A., Mohler, V., Wenzel, G., Beena, R., Sheshshayee, M.S. and Azam-Ali, S.N. BAMLINK - a cross disciplinary programme to enhance the role of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc.) for food security in Africa and India. Acta Horticulturae 806(1): 137-150.

31. Haddrill, P.R., Shuker, D.M., Amos, W., Majerus, M.E.N. and Mayes, S. (2008) Patterns of female multiple mating in wild and laboratory populations of the two-spot ladybird, Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) revealed by microsatellite analysis. Molecular Ecology 17: 3189-3197

32. Al-Rugaishi, I.A., Davey, M., Alderson, P. and Mayes, S. (2008) Genetic relationships and genotype-tracing in date palms (Phoenix dactylifera L.) in Oman, based on microsatellite markers.Plant Genetic Resources: Characterisation and Utilisation: 6(1) 70-72.

33. Mayes, S., Hafeez, F., Price, Z., MacDonald, D., Billotte, N. and Roberts, J.A. (2008) 'Molecular research in oil palm, the key oil crop for the future' In 'Genomics of Tropical Crop Plants.' (eds Moore, P.H. and Ming, R.) Springer, NY.

34. Kloda J.M., Dean P.D.G., MacDonald, D.M. and Mayes, S. (2007). Using principle component analysis to compare genetic diversity across polyploidy levels within plant complexes: an example from British Restharrows (Ononis spinosa and Ononis repens).' Heredity. doi:10.1038/sj.hdy.6801044

35. Haddrill, P.R., Shuker, D.M., Mayes, S. and Majerus, M.E.N. (2007). Transient benefits of multiple mating in the two-spot 1 ladybird, Adalia2 bipunctata. European Journal of Entomology 104(3): 393-398.

36. Basu S., Roberts, J.A., Azam-Ali, S. and Mayes, S (2007). 'Development of microsatellite markers for Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L) Verdc.) Molecular Ecology Notes 7(6): 1326-1328; DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-8286.2007.01870.x

37. Basu, S., Mayes, S., Davey, M., Roberts, J.A., Azam-Ali, S.N., Mithren, R. and Pasquet, R.S. (2007) Inheritance of 'domestication' traits in bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc.) Euphytica 157:59-68; DOI: 10.1007/s10681-007-9396-4

38. Price, Z., Hafeez, F., Billotte, N and Mayes, S. (2007) Plant genome. Biodiversity and Evolution - oil palm. Vol.1, Part D. A.K Sharma and A. Sharma (eds). Kluwer Publishing ISBN: 978-1-57808-420-2.

39. Basu, S., Roberts, J.A., Azam-ali, S.N. and Mayes, S. (2007) Bambara Groundnut. In: Kole, C.M., ed. Genome Mapping and Molecular Breeding in Plants .: Pulses, Sugar and Tuber Crops. 3. Springer, pp. 159-173

40. Mayes, S., Holdsworth, M.J., Pellegrineschi, A. and Reynolds, M. (2005) 'Allying genetic and physiological innovations to improve productivity of wheat and other crops.' pp 89-122 in 'Yields of farmed species - constraints and opportunities in the 21st century'. Eds. R Sylvester-Bradley & J Wiseman: Nottingham University Press, Nottingham.

41. Mayes, S., Parsley, K., Sylvester-Bradley, R., May, S. and Foulkes, M.J. (2005). 'Integrating Genetic information into plant breeding programmes: how will we produce new varieties from molecular variation using bioinformatics?' Annals of Applied Biology 146: 223-237.

42. Kloda, J.M., Dean, P.D.G., MacDonald, D.M. and Mayes, S (2004). 'Isolation and characterisation of microsatellite loci in Ononis repens, Leguminosae.' Molecular Ecology Notes 4: 596-598.

43. Freeman, S., West, J., James, C., Lea, V. and Mayes, S. (2004). 'Development of microsatellite markers for tea (Camellia sineensis).' Molecular Ecology Notes.4:324 - 326.

44. Price, Z., Schulman, A.H. and Mayes, S (2004). 'Development of new marker methods - an oil palm example.' Plant Genetics Resources: Characterisation and Utilisation 1: 2/3, 105-115

45. Kamau E.M., Mayes, S. and Barrett, J.A. (2003). 'Isolation and characterisation of microsatellite loci in Schizolobium parahyba (Leguminosae).' Molecular Ecology Notes 3, 469-470.

46. Haddrill, P.R., Majerus, M.E.M. and Mayes, S. (2002). 'Isolation and characterisation of highly polymorphic microsatellite loci in 2-Spot Ladybirds, Adalia bipunctata'. MolecularEcology Notes 2, 316-319.

47. Price, Z., Dumortier, F., MacDonald, D. and Mayes, S. (2002). 'Characterisation of copia-like elements in oil palm.' Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 104, 5 pp.860- 867.

48 Rance, K., Mayes, S., Price, Z., Jack, P.L. and Corley, R.H.V. (2001).'Quantitative Trait Loci for yield components in oil palm (E. guineensis Jacq.)' Theoretical and Applied Genetics 103, 1302 - 1310

49. Mayes, S., Jack, P.L. and Corley, R.H.V. (2000). 'The application of molecular markers in a specific breeding programme for oil palm.' Heredity 85, pp. 288-293.

50. Mayes, S., Jack, P.L., Marshall, D.F. and Corley, R.H.V., (1997) Construction of a RFLP genetic linkage map for oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.). Genome, 40(1), 116-122.

51. Mayes, S., James, C.M., Horner, F., Jack P.L. and Corley, R.H.V. (1996) The application of restriction fragment length polymorphism for the genetic fingerprinting of oil palm (E. guineensis Jacq). Molecular Breeding 2, 175-180.

52. Jack, P.L., Dimitrejevic, T.A.F. and Mayes, S. (1995) Assessment of nuclear, mitochondrial and chloroplast RFLP markers in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.). Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 90(5), 643.

53. Jack, P.L. and Mayes, S. (1993) Use of molecular markers for oil palm breeding. II - Use of DNA markers (RFLPs). Oleagineux, 48(1), 1.

54. Alderson, P. G. and Mayes, S. (2010). Title Teaching of PGR related courses - the University of Nottingham experience. Reviewing plant genetic resources education in East and Southeast Asia Editors: Rudebjer, P. Watanabe, K. Sebastian. Proceedings of an International Workshop held at the University of Tsukuba, Japan, 17-19 November 2009. ISBN978-92-9043-878

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