George Chen (CChem, FRSC, FRSA, FIMMM) received his Teaching Diploma in 1981 (Chemistry, Jiujiang Teacher Training College, now Jiujiang University), MSc in 1985 (Physical Chemistry/Electrochemistry, Fujian Normal University), and PhD in 1992 (University of London) and DIC (Physical Chemistry/Electrochemistry, Diploma of Imperial College). After postdoctoral research in the Universities of Oxford (1992) and Leeds (1994), he moved to the University of Cambridge (1996), taking up positions of Senior Research Associate (1998), and Assistant Director of Research (2001). In Cambridge, he was awarded the Schlumberger Interdisciplinary Research Fellowship (2000) and elected to Official Fellow (2003) of Darwin College. He joined the University of Nottingham as Reader in 2003, and was promoted to Professor in 2009. He was lecturer of Jiangxi University (1985-1988), and also specially invited professor of the University of Mediterranee (2007) and Wuhan University (2000-2010), and senior academic visitor of Fudan University (2014-2016).
Between Nov 2014 and Sept 2019, Prof. Chen undertook full time academic duties in the University's China Campus in Ningbo (official name: University of Nottingham Ningbo China, UNNC), and is now leading the Electrochemical Technologies Group (ETG) in both the UK (full time) and China (visiting) Campuses. Since July 2017, he has been appointed Li Dak Sum Chair Professor of Electrochemical Technologies in the UNNC. He also holds honorary/visiting positions in Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wenzhou University and Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics (CAS).
Prof. Chen has undertaken various research projects funded by e.g. the EPSRC, Royal Society, MoST (China), MoSTI (Malaysia), E.ON and Ningbo Municipal Government, with the outputs being documented in over 800 of journal, conference and patent publications. Some aspects of his research are being developed by the industry (e.g. The FFC Cambridge Process by Metalysis, and Supercapattery by E.ON). He is the recipient of numerous awards, including the TMS Reactive Metals Technology Award (2001, 2004), the Royal Society Brian Mercer Feasibility Award (2007), the E.ON International Research Award (2008), the Inman Medal (2014), and Specially Invited Expert of Zhejiang Province (2015).
The OCRiD of Prof. Chen is 0000-0002-5589-5767. On 28 December 2019, Web of Science recorded 244 articles from Prof. Chen with 12558 citations and an h-index of 61, and his record in Google Scholar included 373 publications with more than 16049 citations and an h-index of 68.
Prof. Chen is specialised in electrochemical technologies, particularly in association with liquid salts (a collective term for high temperature molten salts and room temperature ionic liquids). His research aims to bring about technology innovations for materials, energy and environment. More specifically, his current work focuses on (a) nano-materials and liquid salts based energy storage devices and processes, including supercapacitor, battery, supercapattery (supercapacitor + battery) and redox flow cell (which are a type of rechargeable fuel cells), (b) production, processing and recycling of structural and functional materials, particularly titanium, silicon and polymer composites (e.g. thermochromic films, electron and/or ion conducting membranes), and (c) liquid salts supported carbon capture and utilisation (CCU) or conversion (CCC), and solar heat storage.
For teaching at undergraduate levels, Prof. Chen's interests are related with chemical thermodynamics, structural and functional materials, and process engineering. He also supervises postgraduate students at both MSc and PhD levels on research topics of, but not limited to, fundamental and materials electrochemistry, electrochemical technologies and engineering, liquid salts based processes and materials, energy conversion and storage, and CO2 capture and reclamation or conversion.
Prof. Chen is currently undertaking academic duties in the University's UK Campus in Nottingham (UNUK, full time) and its China Campus in Ningbo (the University of Nottingham Ningbo China, UNNC,… read more
- Prof. George Chen has established and led the Electrochemical Technologies Group in the University of Nottingham since October 2003, undertaking research programmes on the theme of Electrochemical and Liquid Salts Innovation for Materials, Energy and Environment. On 28 December 2019, Web of Science and Google Scholar reported 12558 and 16049 citations of Prof. Chen's publications, and an h-index of 61 and 68, respectively. His ORCID, Web of Science ResearcherID and Scopus Author ID are respectively 0000-0002-5589-5767, A-4577-2009, and 57200595823.
- Between Nov 2014 and Sept 2019, he undertook academic duties in the University's China Campus, namely the University of Nottingham Ningbo China (UNNC). He is also associated with the International Academy of Marine Economy and Technology (IAMET), Energy Engineering Research Group (EERG, before 2018) and Natural Resources and Environment Research Group (NRE) in the China Campus (Ningbo), and the Energy Technology Research Institute (ETRI) and the Advanced Materials Research Group (AMRG) in the UK campus (Nottingham). From July 2017, he has been appointed Li Dak Sum Chair Professor of Electrochemical Technologies in the UNNC. Since October 2019, Prof. Chen has returned to Nottingham but is still plyaing a visiting role in the UNNC.
His recent and ongoing research is summarised below.
1. Electrochemical science, engineering and technologies for materials, energy and environment
Clean technologies are the necessity of the 21st century and beyond. Fuel cells, batteries and electrochemical capacitors are clean for the energy consumption of human activities. Electrolysis, electro-synthesis, and electrochemical machining are clean for the production of materials and devices supporting human activities. The efficient use of these clean techniques, however, rely strongly on materials that enable and accommodate the relevant electrochemistry and also on innovations that further improve these techniques.
In the electrochemical technologies group led by Prof. Chen in both the UK and China campuses of Nottingham University, methods are being developed for (1) the electrochemical production of engineering and functional materials (metals, ceramics, polymers, nano-materials, supramolecules and composites) and (2) the applications of novel materials in electrochemical devices, including fuel cells, supercapacitors, supercapatteries, rechargeable batteries, sensors, switchable membranes and etc.
In particular, a core topic in Prof. Chen's research is further understanding, improvement and application of the Fray-Farthing-Chen (FFC) Cambridge Process. The electro-extraction of reactive, refractory and rare earths metals (pure or alloyed forms of Si, Ti, Zr, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, W, Nd, Sm and etc.) via the FFC Cambridge Process is being investigated in parallel with specialty devices or their components for medical and electrochemical applications. Another core research area is the indirect electro-reduction of carbon dioxide in molten salts to produce fuels and materials with the process design for utilisation of solar energy.
Carbon based advanced materials, such as carbon nanotubes, electrically conducting polymers, and their composites, are another direction of Prof. Chen's research. Currently, composites of carbon nanotubes and functional materials (e.g. polypyrrole, manganese oxide, titanium dioxide) are being researched. In particular, the composites are and will be used to fabricate a new type of energy storage device, supercapattery, that combines the merits of supercapacitor and rechargeable battery. Collaboration with experts of power electronics is ongoing to develop intelligent interfaces between for example the electric power grid and banks of supercapatteries. Prof. Chen is also researching on the preparation of other organic and inorganic materials based nano-composites (or hybrids) and their applications for energy efficiency and environment cleanup. More recent work has succeeded in efficient photo-electro-catalytic degradation of organic pollutants in water and simultaneous removal of heavy metals or production of hydrogen gas.
2. Liquid salts innovations
Liquid salts refer to "liquids of ions or ionic matters" disregarding temperatures, and hence include the traditional high temperature molten salts and the relatively new room temperature ionic liquids. By convention, molten is a state resulting from heating, and liquid is a condensed fluid under ambient conditions. The facts that both are salts in nature and work only in the liquid state have led the academic community to search for a common term for both, but such a term has not yet been universally accepted due to a number of reasons. Prof. Chen prefers the term of liquid salts because both words are well known to the general public.
Prof. Chen's research in ionic liquids (liquid salts at room temperatures) started in mid 2000, and has already made some meaningful progresses. Modulation of composition and structure in the composites of polymer and ionic liquid can lead to thermochromic behaviour in response to temperature variation. In Prof. Chen's recent work in collaboration with Wuhan University, China, these novel composites changed colour in the temperature range (e.g. 30 ~ 80oC) that is readily achievable under direct or indirect sunlight, and hence termed as solar-thermochromic composites. This finding signifies applications in many areas, but particularly the built environment for improved energy efficiency. For example, these materials may be applied in truly smart windows that can, at high summer temperatures, automatically reduce light transmittance through windows and hence the energy consumption for air conditioning and refrigeration.
Prof. Chen has also ongoing investigation on using liquid salts for (1) carbon capture and reclamation (CCR), conversion (CCC) or utilisation (CCU), (2) solar heat transfer and storage, and (3) high voltage supercapacitors.
3. Basic science
Fundamental understanding of new electrochemical processes and devices is a long term research interest of Prof. Chen. In this aspect, his research team has been studying (1) charge transfer at the three-phase interlines (3PIs) which are the main reaction sites in many electrochemical processes involving three or more phases of solids and liquids, (2) ion conduction mechanisms in polymer-nanomaterial composite membranes, (3) reference electrodes for liquid salts applications, particularly at elevated temperatures, and (4) materials based photo-electrochemical, thermo-electrochemical, piezo -electrochemical, and photo-thermochemical phenomena.
ZHANG, J.Y., WANG, Z.Y., HONG, Y.Z., LI, S.X., JIN, X.B. and CHEN, G.Z., 2014. Electrochemical fabrication of porous Sn/SnSb negative electrodes from mixed SnO2-Sb2O3 ELECTROCHEMISTRY COMMUNICATIONS. 38, 36-39
STEVENSON, A. J., GROMADSKYI, D. G., HU, D., CHAE, J. H., GUAN, L., YU, L. P. and CHEN, G. Z., 2015. Supercapattery with hybrids of redox active polymers and nanostructured carbons. In: XINLIANG FENG, ed., Nanocarbons for Advanced Energy Storage Vol 1. Wiley-VCH. 179-210
Prof. Chen is currently undertaking academic duties in the University's UK Campus in Nottingham (UNUK, full time) and its China Campus in Ningbo (the University of Nottingham Ningbo China, UNNC, visiting). He has often been appointed as an internal examiner, and also an external examiner by other universities in the UK and abroad, for PhD and MSc theses, and MSc taught courses.
In the UNNC, he was convener of a Yr4 module, Project Management (H83PRM, 2015-2017), a Yr3 module, (Engineering Materials, CHEE2028, 2018-2019) and a Yr2 module, Process Engineering Fundamentals (H81PEF, 2015-2017), and shared lecturing of two other modules, Engineering Materials (H82ENM, 2015-2017) for Yr3 and Industrial Process Assessment (H83IPA, 2015-2017) for Yr4, in the Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering. (UNNC Yr4 = UNUK Yr3, and so on)
Before July 2014, Prof. Chen lectured Engineering Materials (H82ENM) to Yr 2 Chemical and Environmental Engineering students at the UNUK (2003-2014), and was one of the staff members demonstrating Yr 3 Chemical Engineering laboratory (2013-1014). He also taught Process Engineering Fundamentals (H81PEF) to Yr 1 Chemical Engineering students (2005-2009). He was MSc Course Director in the Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering between July 2009 and July 2014. He supervised over 80 postgraduate projects at both MSc and PhD levels. For postgraduate teaching, he offered lectures on Energy Storage (H84ENS, MSc/MEng, 2012-2014) and Materials Electrochemistry (PhD).
From October 2019, Prof. Chen has resumed teaching duty in the UNUK with co-lecturing Advance Rheology and Materials (CHEE4004, MEng/MSc) and Materials and Sustainable Processes (CHEE2047, Yr2), and demonstrating Practical Labs (Yr 2). He is also supervising MSc design and research projects
Prof. Chen has continued his learning of new knowledge and skills from the past till today using different methodologies and is of the opinion that the most rewarding learning is to answer those unprecedented questions from students.