New study reveals small-scale renewable energy sources could cause power failures

Wednesday, 02 March 2022

Renewable energy that feeds into the main power grid could destabilise the system and potentially cause power failures according to a new study.

Mathematicians from the University of Nottingham used data from smart meters to track how grid composition changes over time and found resilience varies over the course of a day and that a high uptake of solar panels can leave the grid more susceptible to failure. Their findings have been published today in Science Advances. 

Domestic renewable energy generation is growing rapidly with just over one million small-scale solar Photo-Voltaic(PV) systems in the UK. These small-scale, renewable generators are low- output and intermittent and often distributed across and embedded within power grids in large numbers.

Household generation forms a key component of the integration of renewables and includes the ‘feed in tariff’ which pays the producer for supplying their stored power back upstream to the grid. This supply of power is unpredictable with generators coming on and off-line intermittently and households adopting the role of consumers or producers asdaily and seasonal usage, and meteorological conditions vary. These fluctuations can put the grid at risk of system failures.

Oliver Smith, researcher at the University of Nottingham led the study, he explains: "The increasing proliferation of small, intermittent renewable power sources is causing a rapid change in the structure and composition of the power grid. Indeed, the grid’s effective structure can change over the course of a day as consumers and small-scale generators come on- and off-line. Using data from smart meters in UK households we tracked how grid composition varies over time. We then used a dynamical model to assess how these changes impact the resilience of power grids to catastrophic failures. We found that resilience varies over the course of a day and that a high uptake of solar panels can leave the grid more susceptible to failure.”

The first part of the research investigated the theory around changing the proportion and size of generators by modelling a system using many small-scale generators and in all cases it showed that the grid should be more robust than if using one power source. However, when the real-world smart meter data was incorporated the researchers found that the reality for a network with many small-scale generators operating at different times means the grid doesn’t reach optimum levels for this resilience to be achieved leaving it susceptible to failures.

The researchers found that renewable energy stored in household batteries is used only to minimise household power costs and does little to minimise the risk of network failure.

They recommend that the supply of power from these batteries should be scheduled to also optimise for power grid resilience.

The main problem is the amount of fluctuation there is in small-scale renewable energy supply. A cost-effective way to overcome this would be to intelligently schedule the release of stored PV energy from household batteries at specified times. This would provide much greater control and reduce the risk of system failures.
Oliver Smith, School of Mathematics

Story credits

More information is available from Oliver Smith at the University of Nottingham on

Jane Icke - Media Relations Manager Science
Phone: 0115 7486462

Notes to editors:

The University of Nottingham

Our academics can now be interviewed for broadcast via our Media Hub, which offers a Quicklink fixed camera and ISDN line facilities at Jubilee campus. For further information please contact a member of the Press Office on +44 (0)115 951 5798, email

For up to the minute media alerts, follow us on Twitter

The University of Nottingham is a research-intensive university with a proud heritage. Studying at the University of Nottingham is a life-changing experience, and we pride ourselves on unlocking the potential of our students. We have a pioneering spirit, expressed in the vision of our founder Sir Jesse Boot, which has seen us lead the way in establishing campuses in China and Malaysia - part of a globally connected network of education, research and industrial engagement. Ranked 18th in the UK by the QS World University Rankings 2023, the University’s state-of-the-art facilities and inclusive and disability sport provision is reflected in its crowning as The Times and Sunday Times Good University Guide Sports University of the Year twice in three years, most recently in 2021. We are ranked seventh for research power in the UK according to REF 2021. We have six beacons of research excellence helping to transform lives and change the world; we are also a major employer and industry partner - locally and globally. Alongside Nottingham Trent University, we lead the Universities for Nottingham initiative, a pioneering collaboration which brings together the combined strength and civic missions of Nottingham’s two world-class universities and is working with local communities and partners to aid recovery and renewal following the COVID-19 pandemic.

More news…

Media Relations - External Relations

The University of Nottingham
C Floor, Pope Building (Room C4)
University Park
Nottingham, NG7 2RD

telephone: +44 (0) 115 951 5798