First use of microscopic sound waves to study cell abnormalities

   
   
Phonon microscope 445 x 124 
11 Sep 2018 08:52:34.013

A University of Nottingham academic has won a prestigious five-year fellowship to explore the use of harmless sound waves to view deep inside living cells to aid early diagnose in diseases such as cancer. 

Royal Academy of Engineering Fellow, Dr Fernando Perez-Cota, from the Faculty of Engineering, is building a unique imaging instrument that uses sub-optical-wavelength sound (or phonons). Phonons are typically used in the semiconductor and consumer electronics industries, however their use in scientific imaging is something new.  

Dr Perez, from the Optics and Photonics Group, explains: “Many existing optical imaging techniques fail because they disturb or kill cells in the imaging process, especially with the use of toxic chemical dyes. Sound, by comparison, is harmless to life. Ultrasound, for instance, is the only safe method to image living human embryos.  

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“To exploit this at a cellular level, phonons are the right choice as their wavelength are in the nanometre range. This use of microscopic ultrasound is currently unexploited in the life sciences and healthcare, but it has many potential benefits in 3D imaging, which is something I will be investigating on the project.” 

The new ultrasound microscope will use short laser pulses to generate phonons which spread into cell. The signal picks up and feeds back variations in ‘hardness’ (elasticity) of cell features (membrane, nucleus, etc) to build up a more detailed 3D picture that would be perceptible using light. 

The phonon tool will allow scientists to observe the mechanical properties inside living cells in much higher resolution than with current optical or acoustic methods - resulting in better picture quality - and over more sustained periods of time.

Researchers can also use the tool to study how abnormal and healthy cells may respond differently to drugs, changes in temperature, diet and atmosphere.  

While the phonon microscope will support greater understanding of many issues in cell biology, Dr Perez intends to focus his research on health problems such as cancer, parasitology, osteoporosis and fertility. 

“There is a great deal of evidence that the elasticity of cancer cells differs significantly to normal cells, however capturing the traits of these cells in microscopic detail has proved challenging in the past. The phonon tool could potentially aid earlier disease diagnosis or improve scientific understanding of how cells behave, mutate and spread in the human body,” Dr Perez adds. 

Dr Perez received one of nine new engineering research fellowships announced by the Royal Academy of Engineering to advance their academic research. 

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Notes to editors: 

The University of Nottingham is a research-intensive university with a proud heritage, consistently ranked among the world's top 100. Studying at the University of Nottingham is a life-changing experience and we pride ourselves on unlocking the potential of our 44,000 students - Nottingham was named University of the Year for Graduate Employment in the 2017 Times and Sunday Times Good University Guide, was awarded gold in the TEF 2017 and features in the top 20 of all three major UK rankings. We have a pioneering spirit, expressed in the vision of our founder Sir Jesse Boot, which has seen us lead the way in establishing campuses in China and Malaysia - part of a globally connected network of education, research and industrial engagement. We are ranked eighth for research power in the UK according to REF 2014. We have six beacons of research excellence helping to transform lives and change the world; we are also a major employer and industry partner - locally and globally.

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Story credits

More information is available from Dr Fernando Perez-Cota, University of Nottingham on +44 (0)115 9515605 or fernando.perez@nottingham.ac.uk
EmmaLowry

Emma Lowry - Media Relations Manager

Email: emma.lowry@nottingham.ac.uk  Phone: +44 (0)115 846 7156  Location: University Park

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