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Ian Fisk

Associate Professor in Food Chemistry, Faculty of Science

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Biography

Ian is an Associate Professor in Flavour Chemistry in the Division of Food Sciences (School of Biosciences). Ian studied Food Science as both an undergraduate and postgraduate at the University of Nottingham. Following his PhD on novel flavour delivery systems with Firmenich SA, he worked as a research fellow to support the commercialization of a new encapsulation technology. Ian then moved to industry, as a Senior Scientist at Kraft Foods (now Jacobs Douwe Egberts), running their UK flavour chemistry group. He returned to the University of Nottingham in 2010 as Lecturer in Food Chemistry and Flavour Chemistry. In 2014 Ian became an Associate Professor and now leads the Division's 16 strong Flavour Group, which includes 10 PhD students and a successful commercial consultancy and analysis service, FACTS. Ian's research interests lie in flavour management (production through to consumption) and fundamental food chemistry to support novel processing technologies and commercial products. He has received over £5m of funding for research programmes with many leading UK and international research bodies and food companies - recent projects have included work on salt reduction, flavour release, coffee aroma and the development of encapsulation technologies for bioactives. Within the University he is Director of the Samworth Flavour Chemistry Laboratories and the International Centre of Real Time Mass Spectrometry, and holds positions at a University level on the University Senate and the Promotions Board in addition to representing the Division of Food Sciences on the Learning and Teaching Forum and on Research Board. Ian collaborates with many other Schools and is a member of the Senior Management Team for the EPSRC Doctoral Training Centre in Sustainable Chemistry.

You may find more information via my ORCID

Expertise Summary

Teaching Summary

I teach a wide variety of Food Science topics including: Food Chemistry; Flavour Chemistry; Receptor Theory; Coffee Chemistry

Food Flavour Training

An extremely popular short course in Food Flavour designed for representatives from the food industry.

D24AF1 Food Flavour

A taught masters level course on the flavour of food, how it is formed and lost, in addition analysis methods are covered

D23BF2 Food Factory Operations

An undergraduate level module that covers both the theory behind food factory design and safe food production in addition to practical NPD project.

D24FP2 Food Factory Designs and Operations

This module covers the theory behind food factory design, in addition to labelling legislation and automation in production.

D24FP6 Factory Design and Operations for Food Production

This masters level module that covers both the theory behind food factory design and safe food production in addition to practical NPD project, which culminates in a new product development showcase.

Research Summary

1. Salt reduction in foods through enhanced delivery rate (various model food systems)

We consume sodium to excess in our diet, therefore it is important to reduce our sodium intake; one approach is to increase the accessibility of sodium in the mouth by minimizing the chemical and physical interactions of sodium the bolus (chewed food material). Through the development of a true understanding of the physics and chemistry sodium-bolus interaction we can redesign of food materials to achieve this goal.

2. Aroma release from model, semi-model food systems

A true understanding of aroma perception in foods requires a mechanistic explanation of aroma release. Through the use of model and semi-model foods we can explain the impact of food structure, food chemistry, and processing on aroma release kinetics. This is achieved in real-time using high speed MS-NOSE2 technology to track the release of volatile organic compounds during processing and mastication.

Selected Publications

Vlad Dinu

Normando Ribeiro Filho

Nicola Caporaso

Clive Ford

Su Xu

Chujiao Liu

Wei Xia

Wenting Yin

Natalie Chiu

Nilufar Bahrami

Ruben Rama

Heng Hui Gan

Nicole Yang

Future Research

If you are interesting in carrying out a pospective PhD/MRes these are examples of project I would be interested in supervising.

SALT REDUCTION

In the modern food industry, salt (sodium) is predominantly included in foods for three reasons: enhancement of flavour, modification of structure and control of microbial growth. These three projects will evaluate a number of new strategies to reduce sodium in our diet by directly enhancing the potency of salt (allowing a reduction in total salt), through developing an understanding how salt interacts with food materials during processing and mastication (chewing). The projects will initially explain how sodium (salt) interacts with food structures and how this interaction changes during typical food production processes and mastication. Building on this fundamental understanding, approaches to reduce salt in snack foods, soups and sauces whilst maintaining liking will be evaluated.

(project 1)Explaining the chemical and physical interaction between salt (sodium chloride) and food polymers

(project 2)Explaining the association of salt (sodium chloride) and snack foods during production and during consumption.

(project 3)Explaining the association of salt (sodium chloride) and snack foods during consumption.

You will be expected to develop your own working proposal (under supervision) and develop skills in a wide range of analytical tools and techniques; you would be expected to specialise in one technique from this list of examples. The tightness of association of sodium - biopolymer interactions in solution may be calculated through measurements of bound and free sodium using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectrometers tuned to the sodium nucleus and high resolution 800Hz NMR. The impact on the wider physical and thermal properties of the snack foods may be evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis, wide angle x-ray, DVS and DSC. Sodium delivery, bio-assessability and perception may be evaluated by saliva swabbing and sodium quantification (flame photometry) in partnership with the University of Nottingham's state of the art sensory facilities. Aroma chemistry will be evaluated using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and MS-NOSE. The resultant bolus structure after oral processing may be evaluated by image analysis, 3D scanning, XRAY-CT, and the mastication process may be evaluated by electromyography, electroglottography and video oral processing.

Aroma release from model, semi-model food systems

A true understanding of aroma perception in foods requires a mechanistic explanation of aroma release. Through the use of model and semi-model foods we can explain the impact of food structure, food chemistry, and processing on aroma release kinetics. This is achieved in real-time using high speed MS-NOSE2 technology to track the release of volatile organic compounds during processing and mastication.

(project 1)

School of Biosciences

University of Nottingham
Sutton Bonington Campus
Nr Loughborough
LE12 5RD, UK

For all enquiries please visit:
www.nottingham.ac.uk/enquire

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