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Buxton was the MP for Weymouth from 1818 to 1837.
He was already well-known as a philanthropist and activist on behalf of the poor in Spitalfields. In Parliament he took an interest in law reform and prisons, and campaigned for the abolition of slavery.
Buxton was a co-founder and Vice-President of the Anti-Slavery Society. After Britain's abolition of slavery in 1834 he continued campaigning and writing on the issues of the continuing foreign slave trade, and the welfare of freed slaves.
He was created a Baronet in 1840.
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