The Biosciences and Global Food Security
How can you use science to help improve global food security? This module introduces you to the issues of global food security and the complexity existing in different parts of our food generation system. Looking across the food supply chain, you’ll cover the evolution of crops, crop and animal production, and the food industry. Importantly, you’ll also look at sustainable nutrition because food security isn’t just about supply – it’s important that people are getting the right kind of food. You’ll learn about these issues through a mix of lectures and practical laboratory sessions. You’ll also develop professional skills to work safely in laboratory situations.
Biochemistry – The Building Blocks of Life
Have you ever wondered how some crops can resist diseases? This module provides you with the fundamentals for understanding biochemical processes in living organisms. You’ll be introduced to the basic structure, properties and functions of the four key biological macromolecules: nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates and lipids. You’ll also look at the metabolic pathways occurring in cells, such as respiration, photosynthesis and the biosynthetic pathways for the key macromolecules. In addition to lectures, you’ll have practical laboratory sessions to learn how to use key biochemical techniques for the separation and analysis of macromolecules and measurement of the metabolic process.
Genes and Cells 1
The basic functional units of life are cells. In this module you’ll learn about the growth and development of cells, focusing on mitosis, meiosis, cell division and differentiation. You’ll get to explore the ultrastructure – the structure of a cell too small to be seen with an ordinary microscope – of animal, plant and bacterial cells and even viruses. Once you have this foundation understanding, the second part of the module covers fundamental genetic principles and you’ll be able to answer the questions: What are the Mendelian laws of inheritance? How are genes expressed? You’ll have lectures from current researchers in the field and the opportunity to apply your learning in the laboratory and in workshops.
Global Environmental Processes
hrough a two hour weekly lecture, you’ll be given a general understanding of the physical, chemical and biological development of the Earth since the start of the Universe, as well as of the cyclical movement of the major materials such as carbon and nitrogen between biological and non-biological forms.
A solid understanding of mathematics, physics and chemistry is essential for a scientist. This module will provide you with the foundation knowledge of mathematics and statistics, physics and chemistry needed for your future studies. It compensates for potential gaps in understanding resulting from different prior education. The mathematics and statistics element includes powers and logs, differentiation, significance and regression. The physics element includes energy and heat, light and the electromagnetic spectrum, attenuation/absorption, and radioactivity. The chemistry element includes elements and periodic table; atomic structure and bonding; intermolecular attractions, chemical equilibrium; acids and bases, oxidation and reduction; rates of reaction; and basic organic chemistry, isomerism, and rings. You’ll have lectures from experts in these fields and use computer-aided learning practicals to apply what you’ve learnt.
Academic Development and Employability
In this module you will develop the academic and professional skills you need for your further studies and future career. Through small group work within tutor groups, you’ll become well-equipped in areas such as essay-writing, presentational skills (oral and written), critical interpretation of published materials, and other universal skills that will benefit you throughout your degree and into the future.
Microbes and You
Through this module, you will be given perspective on how microbes interact with humans, animals, plants and other organisms; how they influence environmental processes, and how microbial products contribute to healthcare, food production, and manufacturing. It will address the influence of technological developments, and scientific understanding of microbes and the public perception of them. You’ll spend two hours per week in lectures and tutorials studying for this module.
Genes and Cells 2
In a series of lectures, workshops and practicals you’ll further develop your understanding of gene structure, function and regulation and investigate how this knowledge can be applied in recombinant DNA technology through DNA sequencing and genetic engineering.
Through four hours of lectures each week, you’ll be given basic knowledge of bacterial cell structures and growth and reveal the mechanisms that allow bacteria to respond to their environment. You’ll also be taught how to handle data commonly used in microbiological experimentation and be given training in the basic practical methods required for all microbiological laboratory work through a three hour practical each week.
Microorganisms and Disease
You’ll be introduced to a range of important human pathogens, their interactions with the immune system, mechanisms of disease causation and the laboratory procedures involved in diagnosis and treatment of infections. Each week you’ll spend four hours in lectures to study for this module.
Optional - optional modules may not be available in year one
Bacterial Biological Diversity
This module is designed to provide an understanding of the extent of bacterial biological diversity. Following introductory lectures on bacterial taxonomy and classification and web-page design, you’ll undertake two student-centred exercises. The first will be the production of an essay on a chosen organism covering its taxonomy, biology and ecology. The second will be a group exercise to design a web site including the material collated for the essay.
This module will introduce you to the properties, mechanisms of resistance and clinical use of antimicrobial agents in the treatment of microbial infections. Options relating to disease prevention will be explained, and you’ll be provided with an insight into the role of the laboratory and the Public Health Laboratory Service in the diagnosis, management and control of infection in hospital and the community. During an average week, you’ll have a three hour lecture to study for this module.
The module will provide an introduction to viruses and their interactions with their hosts (bacteria, plants and animals including humans) as well as discussing the structure of viruses and their significance including pathogenesis and molecular biology. You’ll spend four hours per week in lectures studying for this module.
Microbial Biotechnology: Genes to Products
The course will cover topics such as: strain improvement strategies; biological control; the principles of genetic modification in prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms; basic concepts of metabolic pathways and gene regulation; stress responses in relation to pathway manipulation; the production of native and heterologous enzymes; yeasts as models in functional genomics and biological control. You’ll have a weekly three hour lecture to cover content in this module.
Principles of Immunology
What are the main events of the immune response when the body is infected by intra and extracellular parasites, essential components of many diseases? In this module you’ll be introduced to the fundamental concepts behind cellular and molecular immunology. You’ll learn about the main characteristics and features of the innate and adaptive immune system, their functions and how they relate to each other. You’ll explore current immune-techniques, modern concepts of immune-deficiency and hypersensitivities, and contemporary topics in animal and human diseases.
Analysis of Bacterial Gene Expression
This module covers the major techniques required for analysis of gene expression including methods for gene sequence and transcriptional analysis. An in depth study of vectors and gene constructs provides an understanding of the different strategies used in creating mutants and identifying gene function in bacteria. As well as practicals, the coursework exercises are designed to illustrate the topics covered in the lecture course and will give students experience of experimental design and critical analysis of research data and an introduction to bioinformatics for the analysis of DNA and protein sequences.
Professional Skills for Bioscientists
In this module you will develop and consolidate your professional competencies and abilities as a bioscientist. You’ll improve your core professional skills in the scientific method, experimentation, data analysis and measurement techniques that enable you carry out scientifically-sound research in animal, crop or management science. You’ll also cover discipline-specific topics. There will be a mix of lectures, workshops and group activity sessions for you to work on your skills.
Microbial Mechanisms of Foodborne Disease
This module aims to provide a fundamental understanding of the microorganisms causing food-borne disease and the mechanisms by which they do this and their routes of transmission. In laboratory practicals you will learn a number of core practical methods needed for the safe handling, culture, isolation, enumeration and identification of a range of ACDP2 pathogens.
Bacterial Genes and Development
This module aims to describe in some detail the molecular events which occur during the control of gene expression in bacteria. The material covered will begin with simple control circuits, followed by case studies which show how complex developmental programmes can occur in response to environmental stimuli. You’ll have a weekly three hour lecture to study for this module.
Molecular Biology and the Dynamic Cell
This module offers a detailed study of the core molecular processes that enable cells to function such as DNA biochemistry, gene expression, protein synthesis and degradation. You will learn about the basic molecular processes that underpin the function of eukaryotic cells and to describe how different organelles within the cell function, with an emphasis on the dynamic nature of cell biology. You will have lectures, practical classes a poster presentation and tutorials.
Computer Modelling in Science: Introduction
Modern biological and environmental science is often the study of complex systems and large data sets, and relies on computer models and analyses to understand these systems and data. This module introduces you to the computer programming and modelling techniques that are used in the biological and environmental sciences. Using relevant examples and applications, you’ll become familiar with computer programming and algorithms using the Python programming language, and explore how to analyse image data. You’ll also learn how to construct mathematical models for biological and environmental systems using difference and differential equations, with a particular emphasis on population dynamics, and how to simulate, analyse these models and fit these models to data. In computer laboratory sessions, you’ll apply your learning to specific problems, such as environmental pollution, growth of microbial populations, disease epidemics, or computer manipulation of images of plants, animals or the natural environment.
Microbiology Research Project
You will choose and plan a research project in consultation with a supervisor, and will be required to design experiments, collect, analyse and interpret the data obtained. You’ll carry out a literature review and produce an experimental outline. You'll spend at least three full days per week in this year undertaking your work. Examples of recent projects include:
- Synthetic biology to produce anti-cancer agents
- Antimicrobial resistance in farm isolated E. coli
- Bioethanol fermentation using immobilised microorganisms
- Immune response to Porcine Rotavirus infection
- Improving yeast performance in very high gravity fermentations
- New PCR identification method for Listeria monocytogenes
- Use of a bacteriophage-based detection assay to detect Mycobacteria
Read BURN the Biosciences Undergraduate Research at Nottingham web pages to find out more about undergraduate research projects. BURN is a freely accessible e-journal which showcases final-year research projects undertaken by biosciences students.
The Microflora of Foods
You’ll be given an understanding of: the micro-organisms which are important in foods; the factors which control the development of the microflora of food products and the methods which can be used to isolate and identify bacteria from food products. You’ll spend one day per week in lectures studying for this module.
Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology
This module will enable you to comprehend the opportunities that protein engineering provides in applied microbiology and to appreciate some of the practical limitations associated with technology. You’ll gain a detailed understanding of prokaryotic protein expression and examples of its application to biotechnology. Practical classes and seminars will provide an insight into the necessary constraints and practicalities of experimental design and execution. The major coursework assignment introduces you to the rigour required for writing scientific papers.
Plant Cell Signalling
This module deals with the production and perception of plant signalling molecules and the ways in which these signals are integrated to ensure appropriate responses to environmental conditions or plant pathogen attack. You’ll have a three hour lecture each week to study for this module.
Molecular Plant Pathology
This module will cover the molecular techniques being used to develop an understanding of plant/pathogen interactions. It will then cover the molecular biology of plant pathogens, how these cause disease, and the mechanisms used by plants to defend themselves against such pathogens. You’ll have a three hour lecture each week to study for this module.
Rapid Methods in Microbial Analysis
This module will enable you to understand where new methods can replace traditional techniques of microbial detection and recording. You’ll spend four hours in lectures and have a three hour practical each week to study for this module.
This module commences with a review of microbial fermentation, including beer, cheese, yoghurt, meat and single-cell protein production, as well as sewage treatment. The underlying principles of microbial fermentation will be discussed, in addition to specific examples which will be examined in depth. From this basic knowledge the problems of microbial contamination and spoilage of the finished product will be analysed. You’ll spend four hours in lectures and have a four hour practical each week to study for this module.
Virology and Cellular Microbiology
The module will provide an in depth induction into the relationship of bacterial and viral pathogens and their hosts. Including understanding the underlying molecular basis of the adaptive response of bacteria to various environments and the mechanisms by which bacteria and viruses subvert cellular machinery. You’ll have a four hour weekly lecture to cover material for this module.
The modules we offer are inspired by the research interests of our staff and as a result may change for reasons of, for example, research developments or legislation changes. The above list is a sample of typical modules we offer, not a definitive list.