Manuscripts and Special Collections

The people involved

The Archive Teaching Unit uses shorthand names for the various people connected with the Invasion of England. For instance, 'James' is King James II and 'William' is William of Orange. Other people are referred to either by their surname or the aristocratic title they used in 1688.

The Royal Family

  • James II of England and VII of Scotland (1633-1701), reigned 1685-1688. Son of King Charles I and Queen Henrietta Maria. Grandson on his mother's side of King Henri IV of France. Uncle and father-in-law of William of Orange
  • Mary of Modena (1658-1718): second wife of James II and Queen from 1685-1688; mother of James, Prince of Wales, born 1688
  • Mary II (1662-1694), Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland 1689-1694. King James II's elder daughter by his first wife, Anne Hyde, daughter of the Earl of Clarendon. Wife of William of Orange
  • Anne (1665-1714), Queen of Great Britain and Ireland from 1702. King James II's youngest daughter by Anne Hyde. Married to Prince George of Denmark

British politicians

  • William Cavendish, 1st Duke of Devonshire (1641-1707): one of the signatories of the 'invitation'. Whig
  • John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough (1650-1722): close to both James and William, but finally joined William. Created Earl of Marlborough 1689 and Duke of Marlborough 1702
  • Henry Compton, Bishop of London (1632-1713): a supporter of the bishops who had been prosecuted in the Seven Bishops' case; also, one of the signatories of the 'invitation'. Tory
  • Daniel Finch, 2nd Earl of Nottingham (1647-1730): among the conspirators, but did not sign the 'invitation'. High-church Tory
  • Sidney Godolphin, 1st Earl of Godolphin (1645-1712): continued in James's confidence up till late November 1688, but was not without connections with William of Orange. Tory. Baron Godolphin from 1684; created Earl of Godolphin 1706
  • Robert Harley, 1st Earl of Oxford and Mortimer (1661-1724). Took Worcester for William, 1688
  • Admiral Arthur Herbert, Earl of Torrington (1648-1716): one of the conspirators; put in charge of fleet by William. Whig. Created Earl of Torrington 1689
  • Henry Hyde, 2nd Earl of Clarendon (1638-1709): brother-in-law of James II; High-church Tory, but finally deserted to William in late November 1688
  • Edward Hyde, 3rd Earl of Clarendon (1661-1723): styled Lord Cornbury until 1709; Clarendon's son; deserted to William in mid-November 1688
  • Laurence Hyde, 1st Earl of Rochester (1642-1711): brother of Clarendon; also deserted to William, though a High-church Tory
  • Richard Lumley, 1st Earl of Scarborough (1650-1721): one of the signatories of the 'invitation'. Doubtful as to party. Ex-Catholic. 2nd ViscountLumley from 1662; created Earl of Scarborough 1690
  • Thomas Osborne, 1st Duke of Leeds (1632-1712): one of the signatories of the 'invitation'. Raised Yorkshire for William. Tory. Known as the Earl of Danby, 1674-1689, Marquess of Carmarthen 1690-1694. Created Duke of Leeds in 1694
  • William Penn (1644-1718): Quaker, founder of Pennsylvania; acted unsuccessfully as intermediary between James II and William with a view to enlisting William's support of Repeal of Test Act, November 1688
  • Edward Russell: cousin of the Whig Lord Russell who was executed for his part in the Rye House Plot, 1683; one of the signatories of the 'invitation'. Whig
  • George Savile, 1st Marquess of Halifax (1633-1695): among the conspirators, but did not sign the 'invitation'. Prominent in the Convention parliament. Tory
  • Henry Sidney, 1st Earl of Romney (1641-1704): brother of Algernon Sidney who was executed for his part in the Rye House Plot, 1683; one of the signatories of the 'invitation'. Whig. Created Earl of Romney in 1694
  • Robert Spencer, 2nd Earl of Sunderland (1641-1702): in James II's government until dismissed in 1688. Also in William III's first government
  • Charles Talbot, Duke of Shrewsbury (1660-1718): one of the signatories of the 'invitation'. If anything, a Whig. Ex-Catholic. 12th Earl of Shrewsbury from 1668; created Duke of Shrewsbury 1694

The Dutch conspirators and commanders

  • William III (1650-1702): Prince of Orange, son of William II of Orange and Mary, daughter of Charles I; great-grandson of King Henri IV of France through Henrietta Maria, wife of Charles I; King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 1689
  • Hans Willem (William) Bentinck, 1st Earl of Portland (1649-1709): close adviser and friend of William of Orange; prominent at all stages of the Revolution. Created Earl of Portland 1689
  • George Frederick, Prince of Waldeck (1620-1692): prominent among Dutch army commanders
  • Hendrik Casimir II (1657-1696), Prince of Nassau-Dietz: prominent among Dutch army commanders
  • Frederick Herman de Schomberg, 1st Duke of Schomberg (1615-1690): leader of the Dutch army. Created Duke of Schomberg in the English peerage 1689


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Manuscripts and Special Collections

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