Smokers who survive their habit into old age may hold the key to better lung health for all, according to a Medical Research Council-funded (MRC) study involving researchers at The University of Nottingham and the University of Leicester.
Using genetic data from participants in the UK Biobank*, the research team has identified genetic differences which affect the likelihood of whether or not a person will smoke, and the predisposition of both heavy smokers and non-smokers to suffer from poor lung health.
The new discoveries may one day help scientists develop better treatments for diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a life-threatening condition which affects almost one million people in the UK. The findings could also help improve interventions aimed at helping smokers to give up.
The findings are presented today (Monday) at this year’s European Respiratory Society (ERS) meeting in Amsterdam and are published in the Lancet Respiratory Medicine.
The lead researchers, Professor Ian Hall at The University of Nottingham, and Professor Martin Tobin from the University of Leicester, studied the lung health of approximately 500,000 UK Biobank participants.
A subset of 50,000 of these participants were selected based on their lung health and whether or not they were heavy smokers or had never smoked. The researchers then compared these factors with 28 million genetic variants in each participant, making this study one of the most detailed of its kind. The team were able to find parts of the human genome never before associated with a person’s lung health, as well as five sections of DNA shown for the first time to relate to being a heavy smoker.
The discoveries help to explain why some people can have relatively good lung health, despite smoking, and why some can suffer from lung conditions even if they have never smoked before. Knowing why they are more likely to develop lung disease or to become heavy smokers is important for developing treatments for these diseases and for helping smokers to quit.
Professor Ian Hall said: “The drugs we use to prevent or treat diseases target the proteins in our bodies, and our genes influence the production of proteins. Understanding how the genes are involved in disease or in addiction to tobacco, can help us design and develop better and more targeted treatments that are likely to be more effective and have fewer side effects. UK Biobank was a bold vision when it was set up and this study shows just how much can be achieved by using the resource. We hope to get much further detail when genetics information on all UK Biobank participants becomes available next year.”
Professor Martin Tobin said: “Smoking is the biggest lifestyle risk factor for COPD. Many, but not all, smokers develop the disease. Genetics play a big part, as they do in smoking behaviour. Our research helps to tell us why, paving the way for improved prevention and treatment. Stopping smoking is the best way to prevent smoking-related diseases such as COPD, cancers and heart disease.”
The scientists hope to expand the study to look at the genetics of all 500,000 participants when the data become available in 2016.
Dr David Crosby, who leads on experimental medicine at the MRC, said: “UK Biobank was set up by the MRC and other funders for just this type of important research. Thanks to the 500,000 people who have volunteered to make this resource the biggest in Europe, researchers will have access to a huge amount of information about the part that environment and genetics play in disease. The genetics work done by this group will be incorporated into UK Biobank for other researchers working in different areas to use in their own studies, bringing closer the promise of new treatments and drugs for a whole range of diseases and conditions.”
The study was conducted by the UK BiLEVE - UK Lung Exome Variant Evaluation team of researchers.
Paper: Novel insights into the genetics of smoking behaviour, lung function and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in UK Biobank by Louise V Wain et al is published in the Lancet Respiratory Medicine.
People who smoke can receive support to quit smoking and “Stoptober” is a great way to quit: https://stoptober.smokefree.nhs.uk/
*UK Biobank is a major national health resource funded by the MRC and Wellcome Trust to improve the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of a wide range of serious and life-threatening illnesses – including cancer, heart diseases, stroke, diabetes, arthritis, osteoporosis, eye disorders, depression and forms of dementia. UK Biobank recruited 500,000 people aged between 40-69 years in 2006-2010 from across the country to build the resource. These volunteers gave their permission for long-term follow up of their health and for analyses of their donated blood samples, including genetic. http://www.ukbiobank.ac.uk
The Medical Research Council is at the forefront of scientific discovery to improve human health. Founded in 1913 to tackle tuberculosis, the MRC now invests taxpayers’ money in some of the best medical research in the world across every area of health. Thirty-one MRC-funded researchers have won Nobel prizes in a wide range of disciplines, and MRC scientists have been behind such diverse discoveries as vitamins, the structure of DNA and the link between smoking and cancer, as well as achievements such as pioneering the use of randomised controlled trials, the invention of MRI scanning, and the development of a group of antibodies used in the making of some of the most successful drugs ever developed. Today, MRC-funded scientists tackle some of the greatest health problems facing humanity in the 21st century, from the rising tide of chronic diseases associated with ageing to the threats posed by rapidly mutating micro-organisms. www.mrc.ac.uk
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Notes to editors: The University of Nottingham has 43,000 students and is ‘the nearest Britain has to a truly global university, with campuses in China and Malaysia modelled on a headquarters that is among the most attractive in Britain’ (Times Good University Guide 2014). It is also one of the most popular universities in the UK among graduate employers and the winner of ‘Research Project of the Year’ at the THE Awards 2014. It is ranked in the world’s top one per cent of universities by the QS World University Rankings, and 8th in the UK by research power according to REF 2014.
The University of Nottingham in Malaysia (UNMC) is holding events throughout 2015 to celebrate 15 years as a pioneer of transnational education. Based in Semenyih, UNMC was established as the UK's first overseas campus in Malaysia and one of the first world-wide.
Impact: The Nottingham Campaign, its biggest-ever fundraising campaign, is delivering the University’s vision to change lives, tackle global issues and shape the future. More news…