Course overview

Do you want to push the boundaries of engineering to solve complex problems to improve the sustainability and efficiency of the world we live in? This course will give you opportunity to combine your initiative, numeracy skills and detailed subject knowledge to make modern industry work better for us all.

Mechanical engineering plays a vital role in many industries including aerospace, manufacturing, medicine, renewable energy and Formula 1. In fact, there is little in our daily lives that isn’t touched by mechanical engineering innovations, from the cars we drive to the way our food is processed.

As well as taught sessions, you’ll have access excellent manufacturing research facilities, including robotics and 3D printing techniques. You will also apply your knowledge in individual and group project settings.

Mechanical and manufacturing engineering share a common programme for the first two years, where you will learn the fundamentals of engineering science and design. In the third and fifth years you will specialise in manufacturing engineering options. You will spend year four in industry.

This five-year course covers all the essential engineering skills that top global companies are looking for in graduates and will help you work towards becoming a chartered engineer.

Why choose this course?

  • A Top 20 UK department in The Times and The Sunday Times Good University Guide, 2021
  • Get paid experience with a year out in industry
  • Customise your degree to suit your interests with a wide selection of optional modules

Entry requirements

All candidates are considered on an individual basis and we accept a broad range of qualifications. The entrance requirements below apply to 2022 entry.

UK entry requirements
A level A*AA
Required subjects

A*AA - A in Maths and either Physics (preferred) or Further Maths as a 2nd subject, or Maths with any two of the following: Chemistry, Biology, Design, Economics, Psychology, Electronics, Computer Science.

Excluding General Studies, Critical Thinking, Citizenship Studies, CIE Global Perspectives and Research, CIE Thinking Skills.

IB score 38 including Mathematics: Analysis and Approaches - 6 at Higher Level or 7 at Standard Level or Mathematics: Applications and Interpretation – 6 at Higher Level only (plus Physics at Higher or Standard Level).

BTEC or Access courses not accepted for MEng course.

Foundation progression options

A foundation year is available for those with BBB grades but not in the required subjects.

Learning and assessment

How you will learn

Teaching methods

  • Group study
  • Independent study
  • Lab sessions
  • Lectures
  • Practical classes
  • Supervision
  • Tutorials
  • Workshops

How you will be assessed

Assessment methods

  • Coursework
  • Dissertation
  • Examinations
  • Group coursework
  • Presentation
  • Research project
  • Practical assessment

Contact time and study hours

Engineers are among the busiest students on campus. On average, you will have around 20-22 contact hours a week in years one and two. Combined with coursework and self-study, you are likely to spend over 40 hours a week on your studies.

Our courses provide the opportunity to specialise through a choice of subject modules and practical work.

Study abroad

There are study abroad options for this course.

Year in industry

There is the opportunity to spend a year in industry and we have a team of careers experts to support you in finding the right placement. During the placement you are classed as an employee of the host company and will receive a salary.

Placements are usually undertaken in the UK, but can be anywhere in the world.

Find out where our students have been on placement in the past.

What is it like studying Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering at UoN?

Hear what our students have to say about studying Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering at UoN.


The first two years provide a good grounding in the broad fundamentals of engineering science and engineering design. The science subjects studied include thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, solid mechanics, dynamics and electro-mechanical systems. In design, the emphasis is on project work and in both the first and second years, you will undertake a design, make and test project, which you will manufacture in the department's student workshop.


Engineering Design and Design Project

This year long module introduces students to basic concepts and practice of design and manufacture with a semester long group and individual project. It includes the following topics:  

  • the process of design supported by practical design activities
  • engineering drawing 
  • solid modelling and drawing generation  
  • machine elements 
  • group Design Project with Integrated Individual Element  
  • machine shop practical training 

Student groups will undertake a different group design project in semester two aligned to their subject stream: Mechanical, Manufacturing Engineering or Product Design and Manufacture

Materials and Manufacturing

This year long module introduces students to the properties of materials, the main failure mechanisms which a designer will be concerned with (e.g overload, fracture, creep, fatigue) and core manufacturing methods used in engineering applications.
It includes the following topics:

  • the role of materials and material properties in the design process
  • the selection and use of materials
  • the basic science underlying material properties and approaches to avoid failure of materials to provide the knowledge with which to design materials with better properties. For each property (or group of properties), a case study of practical design application will be addressed
  • an introduction to manufacturing in the UK 
  • an introduction to high value – low volume and low value – high volume manufacturing processes including: casting, machining, moulding, forming, powder processing, heat treatment, surface finishing and assembly
  • an introduction into additive manufacturing an introduction to manufacturing metrology 
Mathematics for Engineers

This module introduces a range of fundamental elementary mathematical techniques that can be applied to mechanical engineering, manufacturing and product design problems. It includes:

  • the calculus of a single variable, extended to develop techniques used in analysing engineering problems
  • techniques for solving selected first-order and second-order differential equations
  • the algebra of complex numbers to provide a key mathematical tool for analysis of linear mathematical and engineering problems
  • the complexity of solving general (large) systems of equations 
  • advanced differential and integral calculus of one variable
  • first-order ordinary-differential equations
  • algebra of complex numbers
  • matrix algebra and its applications to systems of equations and eigenvalue problems
  • functions and their properties
  • vector spaces and their applications
  • vector calculus
Programming, Professional and Laboratory Skills

This year long module comprises a number of elements to provide you with:

  • professional engineering, information searching, data analysis, health and safety and oral presentations 
  • laboratory skills and development of house style laboratory report
  • writing and understanding of computer programs including, loops, conditional statements, program flow, functions, basic input output, sound processing, image processing, variables, (1/2D) arrays, advanced plotting and simple computer graphics. 
  • the application of computer code to control mechanical devices as part of a group project. 
  • introduction to professional responsibilities of engineers including the fundamental role of sustainability, legal issues, patents, ethics and standards 
Statics and Dynamics

An introductory module covering analysis methods applicable to engineering design including:

  • review of basic mechanics: vectors, units, forces and moments, Newton’s laws
  • static equilibrium: force and moment analysis in design; frictional forces
  • free body diagrams and Pin-jointed structures
  • stress, strain and elasticity
  • multi-axial stress-strain; thin walled vessels under pressure
  • shear stress and torsion of shafts
  • plane stress; Mohr's circle analysis
  • beam bending: shear force and bending moment diagrams
  • second moments of area of cross-sections
  • bending stresses in beams 
  • linear and rotational motion: displacement, velocity and acceleration
  • relationship between angular and linear motion
  • newton's Laws for linear and rotational motion
  • linear and Angular Momentum, including conservation of momentum
  • work, energy and power, including kinetic and potential energy
  • geared systems
  • drive systems, including tangential drives and vehicles
  • load characteristics and steady-state characteristics
  • flywheel design
  • static and dynamic balancing
Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics 1

This is an introductory module covering the fundamental concepts and principles of thermofluids and their applications to engineering problems. Topics covered include: 

  • introductory concepts; properties of fluids, equations of state and the perfect gas law 
  • hydrostatics The first and second law of thermodynamics, including heat engines 
  • fluid dynamics: continuity, Euler and Bernoulli equations 
  • processes undergone by closed systems 
  • the steady flow energy equation 
  • momentum flows including linear momentum, friction factors and pipe flows
  • heat transfer
The above is a sample of the typical modules we offer but is not intended to be construed and/or relied upon as a definitive list of the modules that will be available in any given year. Modules (including methods of assessment) may change or be updated, or modules may be cancelled, over the duration of the course due to a number of reasons such as curriculum developments or staffing changes. Please refer to the module catalogue for information on available modules. This content was last updated on Wednesday 20 October 2021.


Advanced Mathematics and Statistics for Mechanical Engineers
Design, Manufacture and Project

This module will introduce design methodology through the entire design cycle from establishing users' needs and generating creative concepts to developing fabricable engineered solutions.

You will develop knowledge of machine elements and mechanical systems and develop enhanced skills in communicating effectively in a team environment and operating machine tools for manufacturing and testing of design.


This module aims to introduce concepts of rigid body dynamics, vibrations and feedback control, and develop the student's ability to analyse these aspects in simplified engineering situations. 

Electromechanical Devices
Engineering Management 1
Materials in Design

This module aims to introduce students to methodologies for materials selection and process selection for design improvement. This module seeks to develop an understanding of the role of materials in the design of a range of components, from consumer goods to large scale structures.

Mechanics of Solids

The aim of this module is to introduce more advanced topics in linear elastic solid mechanics, plasticity and failure, introduce relevant analysis methods for this materials behaviour and demonstrate the application of these methods to the design of engineering components. 

Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics 2

In this module you will apply concepts and principles of thermofluids to fluid mechanics, thermodynamics and heat transfer situations in simplified applied situations.

The above is a sample of the typical modules we offer but is not intended to be construed and/or relied upon as a definitive list of the modules that will be available in any given year. Modules (including methods of assessment) may change or be updated, or modules may be cancelled, over the duration of the course due to a number of reasons such as curriculum developments or staffing changes. Please refer to the module catalogue for information on available modules. This content was last updated on

Year three features a major group design and make project over the full year, making up a third of your studies. In addition to compulsory manufacturing modules, you will study a range of optional modules in manufacturing, operations management and human factors. This provides you with the flexibility to tailor the course to your interests.


Group Design and Make

The project involves four or five students, working as a team to design, manufacture and develop a product. Starting from the design brief prepared by the supervisor, the group will be required to devise and evaluate alternative design concepts, undertake the detailed engineering analysis and mechanical design, manufacture a prototype, evaluate its performance and undertake development work to improve it. Assessment of the financial viability and marketability of the product will be a major requirement. 

Engineering Management 2
Engineering Sustainability
Flexible Automated Manufacture

This module introduces the important aspects of advanced automated manufacturing principles. It aims to help you develop a sound understanding of flexible automated manufacturing solutions. Through case studies, you’ll study their role in the context of current and future manufacturing challenges, as well as their advantages and limitations. Topics include:

  • computer integrated manufacturing
  • implications of mass customisation on automated manufacturing systems
  • the impact of enterprise agility on their manufacturing facilities
Manufacturing Automation

The aim of the module is to introduce students to the fundamental concepts of manufacturing automation, present key automation technologies in manufacturing and their advantages and limitations.

The module will introduce the relevant theoretical background and fundamental concepts of different automation approaches and technologies. The focus will be placed on the role of sensors, CNC machine tools, industrial robotics and programmable logic controllers within different manufacturing contexts. Methods and indicators for quantitative production performance and cost analysis will be covered as well.


Aerospace Manufacturing Technology

This module covers a range of topics relating to basic airframe structure. Airframe component manufacturing techniques, automated manufacture, geometry and material constraints will be covered. 

Computer Aided Engineering

In this module you will start to develop one of the key skills for an engineer – that of being able to program. You will gain the skills required to analyse, design and implement solutions to practical engineering problems through the use of computer aided design tools and the development of software based solutions.

Computer Engineering and Mechatronics
Fibre Reinforced Composites Engineering (spring)

An introductory module on the design, manufacture and performance of fibre-reinforced composite materials. 

Constituent materials including fibres, resins and additives are described. Processing techniques and the relationships between process and design are highlighted. Design methodologies and computer-aided engineering techniques are demonstrated for component design. Case studies from a variety of industries including automotive and aerospace are presented.

Method and Frequency of Class:

Activity Number of Weeks Number of sessions Duration of a session
Lecture 12 weeks 1 week 2 hours

 Method of Assessment:

Assessment Type Weight Requirements
Exam 1 100.00 2 hour exam
Food Factory Designs and Operations

This module is to provide a level of understanding about the operations of a food factory commensurate with that expected by a manager to include: information on the units operations, appropriate legislative issues, control of goods in and out of the establishment, appropriate hygienic regimes and controlled flows.

Introduction to Transport Materials
Making Metals Perform (Autumn)

This module covers the principles and practice relating to processing, structure and properties of engineering alloys. The emphasis is on understanding the importance of process control to achieve desired properties through the formation of correct microstructural features.

Topics covered include:

  • equilibrium microstructural development - construction and interpretation of phase diagrams including quantitative prediction of microstructure
  • the kinetics of phase transformations - the TTT diagram and diffusionless transformations
  • thermal processing such as precipitation hardening, heat treating and annealing
  • forming operations for metal alloys
  • practical examples using important metal alloy systems such as steels, aluminium alloys and Nickel superalloys.

Method and Frequency of Class:

Activity Number of Weeks Number of sessions Duration of a session
Lecture 11 weeks 1 week 2 hours

 Method of Assessment:

Assessment Type Weight Requirements
Exam  100.00 2 hour exam
Managing Business Operations

This module explores the strategic importance of operations in business management, within and across organisations, and in addressing environmental and societal challenges. Organisations in this module refer to organisations from the public, private and third sectors; service and manufacturing.

Examples of topics include:

  • value and performance
  • the links with other business functions
  • sustainability
  • product and service innovation
  • managing the supply chain and network
  • resource management
  • excellence through improvement and quality
Managing Service Operations

This module will include topics that will help students to appreciate the growing importance of services, and understand the operations function in service industries. This module aims to illustrate the growing importance of services in today's economy and provide an appreciation of the issues involved in managing the operations function of service organisations. 

Management of Quality

This module aims to develop your understanding of quality management. It begins by introducing you to the ways in which thinking about quality has developed historically. You’ll discuss different definitions and concepts of quality and the specific quality management needs in the manufacturing and service sectors.

Manufacturing Process Capability

The module will give students in-depth understanding of technical capability of modern manufacturing processes in relation to product design. The aim of the module is to develop students’ abilities to understand and assess the capability of single and combined manufacturing processes. You’ll spend two hours in lectures and two hours in seminars each week when studying this module.

Plant Location and Design

This module provides an understanding of the factors which influence a company's choice of location, and of how to approach the design of layouts to support a company's strategic objectives and maximise the efficiency of its operations.

Supply Chain and Operations Planning

This module will introduce you to:

  • supply chain fundamentals, including: the supply chain planning processes and the need for them
  • planning processes and methods, including: forecasting; aggregate planning; MRP; capacity management; theory of constraints (TOC); JIT (kanban); inventory management
  • IS/IT support for planning including ERP systems
  • planning through the supply chain, examining the challenges in different contexts through case studies
The above is a sample of the typical modules we offer but is not intended to be construed and/or relied upon as a definitive list of the modules that will be available in any given year. Modules (including methods of assessment) may change or be updated, or modules may be cancelled, over the duration of the course due to a number of reasons such as curriculum developments or staffing changes. Please refer to the module catalogue for information on available modules. This content was last updated on

The fourth year of this course is spent in industry. You will receive support in applying for a year-long placement with an appropriate company. During the placement you will significantly enhance your engineering knowledge and skills. You will have regular meetings with your tutor throughout the year and will remain fully registered with the University.

A major individual project focusing on manufacturing engineering makes up a third of your studies. You will also study compulsory modules in advanced engineering topics along with a range of optional modules, allowing further specialisation.


MEng Individual Project

The project aims to give experience in the practice of engineering at a professional level. It involves the planning, execution and reporting of a programme of work which will normally involve a mixture of experimental, theoretical and computational work together with a review of relevant previous work in the field.

Additive Manufacturing and 3D printing

The aim of this module is to provide students with detailed knowledge of the various Additive Manufacturing technologies including specific design, material and process principles. Students will gain an insight into current and future applications as well as the research developments required for the advancement of this technology.

This module will cover design, processing and material aspects of Additive Manufacturing and 3D Printing technologies, as well as the current and potential applications of the technology in a wide variety of sectors. Topics covered will include:

  • commercial and experimental systems
  • material requirements
  • design for Additive Manufacturing
  • software and systems
Digital Manufacturing


Advanced Methods in Human Factors and Human-Computer Interaction (spring)

Topics include:

  • working as a human factors engineer/HCI professional
  • predictive evaluation techniques (eg GOMs, Fitts Law)
  • psychophysical methods
  • verbal protocol analysis
  • qualitative approaches and methodologies
  • eye-tracking methodologies
  • ethical considerations in human factors research
  • capturing and analysing human physiological data
Cognitive Ergonomics in Design

This module will provide you with a thorough understanding of cognitive ergonomics and the way in which the consideration of cognitive ergonomics can impact on human performance in the workplace. 

Human-Computer Systems

This module will provide students with a thorough understanding of the growth of IT and human computer systems. To examine the concepts and methods available for the analysis, design and evaluation of computer-based interfaces through hardware, software, task and systems design. 

Innovation Management

This module will help students to understand the knowledge and skills required to manage innovation by considering a number of different perspectives. 

Joining Technology (spring)

This module examines, in-depth, the processes used for joining metallic (e.g. steel, aluminium and titanium alloys) and non-metallic (e.g. polymers and fibre reinforced composites) materials. 

Topics covered include:

  • mechanical joining
  • adhesive bonding
  • soldering and brazing
  • solid state joining (friction welding and diffusion bonding)
  • fusion welding (arc welding and the many classes thereof, resistance, electron beam and laser welding)

The fundamental characteristics of the various processes are examined along with procedures for practical applications. The origins of defects within joints and methods needed to control or eliminate them are also considered. The mechanical behaviour of joints is analysed, as is the effect of joining on the microstructural characteristics and mechanical properties of the base materials. Other features such as residual stress and distortion are addressed. Attention is also given to appropriate design for manufacture in a modern manufacturing context.

Method and Frequency of Class:

Activity Number of Weeks Number of sessions Duration of a session
Lecture 12 weeks 1 week 2 hours

 Method of Assessment:

Assessment Type Weight Requirements
Coursework 1 25.00 Case study review
Exam 1 75.00 1 hour 30 minute unseen written exam
Polymer Engineering (autumn)

A broad-based module covering the chemistry, material properties and manufacturing methods relevant to polymers.

Topics include:

  • Polymer chemistry and structure
  • Routes to synthesis, polymerisation techniques, practical aspects of industrial production
  • Viscoelasticity, time-temperature equivalence
  • Rheology of polymer melts, heat transfer in melts, entanglements
  • Properties of solid polymers, yield and fracture, crazing
  • Manufacturing with polymers, extrusion, injection-moulding
  • Design/ processing interactions for plastic products

Method and Frequency of Class:

Activity Number of Weeks Number of sessions Duration of a session
Lecture 11 weeks 1 week 2 hours
Seminar 11 weeks 1 week 1 hour

 Method of Assessment:

Assessment Type Weight Requirements
Coursework 1 25.00 Report on multidisciplinary design exercise covering the chemistry, processing and properties of a polymeric product
Exam 1 75.00 2 hour exam
Simulation, VR and Advanced Human Machine Interface
Supply Chain Management

The module aims to give an in-depth coverage of supply chain management and logistics in the context of contemporary operations, taking into account the major competitive drivers of efficiency and responsiveness and the solutions enabled by new technologies. 

Technologies for the Hydrogen Economy
Work Systems and Safety (spring)

This modules aims to give an understanding of systems approaches to the design and analysis of effective and safe work, primarily in the context of industrial systems but also in relation to major projects, public and social systems and digital systems.

It is vital that students learn that technical, human, organizational and economic factors must be addressed when understanding the operation and potential failure in existing systems, and in developing requirements, implementation and evaluation approaches for social and socio-technical systems, and for systems of systems.

In this module, particular attention will be paid to distributed (in time and space) systems and ones with elements of automated processes (all of which will have to interact with human and organisational elements at some point and time). The potential causes of accidents and of human error are explained, and an introduction given to methods of reporting and investigating accidents and techniques for analysing accidents and systems reliability which will lead to the design of safer organisations and work systems.

Topics covered include:

  • risk and risk perception
  • risk assessment and management
  • accident models and accident causation
  • causes of human error
  • epidemiology, accident reporting and analysis
  • accident prevention
  • human reliability assessment
  • safety climate and culture
  • safety systems management

Method and Frequency of Class:

Activity Number of Weeks Number of sessions Duration of a session
Lecture 12 weeks 2 week 2 hours

Method of Assessment:

Assessment Type Weight Requirements
Coursework 1 30.00  
Exam 1 70.00  
The above is a sample of the typical modules we offer but is not intended to be construed and/or relied upon as a definitive list of the modules that will be available in any given year. Modules (including methods of assessment) may change or be updated, or modules may be cancelled, over the duration of the course due to a number of reasons such as curriculum developments or staffing changes. Please refer to the module catalogue for information on available modules. This content was last updated on

Fees and funding

UK students

Per year

International students

To be confirmed in 2021*
Keep checking back for more information
*For full details including fees for part-time students and reduced fees during your time studying abroad or on placement (where applicable), see our fees page.

If you are a student from the EU, EEA or Switzerland starting your course in the 2022/23 academic year, you will pay international tuition fees.

This does not apply to Irish students, who will be charged tuition fees at the same rate as UK students. UK nationals living in the EU, EEA and Switzerland will also continue to be eligible for ‘home’ fee status at UK universities until 31 December 2027.

For further guidance, check our Brexit information for future students.

Additional costs

As a student on this course, you should factor some additional costs into your budget, alongside your tuition fees and living expenses:

  • Books - You should be able to access most of the books you’ll need through our libraries.
  • Printing – Black and white printing costs 4p per side.
  • Year in Industry - If you do a work placement, any costs associated with travel or accommodation will need to be factored in.
  • Year abroad - If you study abroad, you will need to consider the travel and living costs for the country you choose. This could include visa costs and medical insurance.
  • Laptops – Although there are PCs available for your use in our computer labs, you may wish to purchase your own laptop, read more about our recommended specification.
  • Calculator - While the calculator you used for your former study is usually sufficient some students will choose to purchase a new calculator which will cost around £10.

Please note that these figures are approximate and subject to change.

There may also be costs issued by the university for replacement student ID cards, additional transcripts or certification letters, reassessments and library fines.

Scholarships and bursaries

Scholarships and bursaries

The University of Nottingham offers a wide range of bursaries and scholarships. These funds can provide you with an additional source of non-repayable financial help. For up to date information regarding tuition fees, visit our fees and finance pages.

Faculty-specific funding

In addition to the above, students applying to the Faculty of Engineering may be eligible for faculty-specific or industry scholarships.

Home students*

Over one third of our UK students receive our means-tested core bursary, worth up to £1,000 a year. Full details can be found on our financial support pages.

* A 'home' student is one who meets certain UK residence criteria. These are the same criteria as apply to eligibility for home funding from Student Finance.

International students

We offer a range of international undergraduate scholarships for high-achieving international scholars who can put their Nottingham degree to great use in their careers.

International scholarships


Along with an accredited engineering degree you will have gained the practical and theoretical skills needed to improve the production systems for manufacturing industrial products and assemblies efficiently. Your transferable skills will also include effective communication skills and problem solving.

Our graduates work for  a diverse range of employment sectors with companies including:

  • Jaguar Land Rover
  • Tata Steel
  • Procter & Gamble
  • Rolls-Royce
  • Ford
  • Thales

Average starting salary and career progression

99.2% of undergraduates from the Department of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering secured work or further study within six months of graduation. £26,000 was the average starting salary, with the highest being £43,000.*

* Known destinations of full-time home undergraduates who were available for employment, 2016/17. Salaries are calculated based on the median of those in full-time paid employment within the UK.

Studying for a degree at the University of Nottingham will provide you with the type of skills and experiences that will prove invaluable in any career, whichever direction you decide to take.

Throughout your time with us, our Careers and Employability Service can work with you to improve your employability skills even further; assisting with job or course applications, searching for appropriate work experience placements and hosting events to bring you closer to a wide range of prospective employers.

Have a look at our careers page for an overview of all the employability support and opportunities that we provide to current students.

The University of Nottingham is consistently named as one of the most targeted universities by Britain’s leading graduate employers (Ranked in the top ten in The Graduate Market in 2013-2020, High Fliers Research).

Institution of Mechanical Engineers (IMechE)

the Institution of Mechanical Engineers (IMechE) and provides you with some or all of the underpinning knowledge, understanding and skills for eventual registration as an Incorporated (IEng) or Chartered Engineer (CEng).

Accreditation is a mark of assurance that the degree meets the standards set by the Engineering Council in the UK Standard for Professional Engineering Competence (UKSPEC).

The Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET)

This course is accredited by the IET (Institution of Engineering and Technology) to meet the further learning requirements of a Chartered Engineer.

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" I was part of a team delivering an engine assembly line for a new engine. We started with an empty shell and got to the point where we had an assembly line building engines. I got loads out of my placement, best of all, I got a job! "
Joe Hicks talking about his placement at Jaguar Landrover

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Important information

This online prospectus has been drafted in advance of the academic year to which it applies. Every effort has been made to ensure that the information is accurate at the time of publishing, but changes (for example to course content) are likely to occur given the interval between publishing and commencement of the course. It is therefore very important to check this website for any updates before you apply for the course where there has been an interval between you reading this website and applying.