Centre for Evidence-based Veterinary Medicine

Appraisal of cross-sectional studies

Many critical appraisal tools exist for various types of study (e.g. CASP , CEBM and AMSTAR) but there is no validated tool for cross-sectional studies, which are common in the veterinary literature. The aim of this study was to develop a tool for the critical appraisal of cross-sectional studies.

A framework for critical appraisal of cross-sectional studies was identified by the CEVM, and a Delphi panel of experts in evidence-based medicine and epidemiology was then established. The Delphi panel was used to reach a consensus on the questions that should be included in a critical appraisal tool for cross-sectional studies.

Key results:

  • A 20 point appraisal tool has been developed
  • A support document compiled to help readers use the tool

A scientific paper detailing this work (including the appraisal tool and help document) has now been published:


Martin Downes, Rachel Dean, Marnie Brennan


Centre for Evidence-based Veterinary Medicine

School of Veterinary Medicine and Science
University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus
Leicestershire, LE12 5RD

Tel: +44 (0) 115 951 6576
Fax: +44 (0) 115 951 6415
Email: CEVM@nottingham.ac.uk