Course overview

Faith is inseparable from the art, music, literature and moral thinking of all societies.

This unique course explores how religious and ethical traditions shape creative expression.

You'll look at both historical developments and contemporary issues such as:

  • how does the media shape public understanding of religion?
  • how does the Bible influence art, music and film?
  • how have authors of fantasy and science fiction explored religious and ethical ideas?

Our staff include theologians, philosophers, biblical scholars, historians and sociologists. This diversity broadens your skills and perspectives.

As part of the course we encourage you to use video, art and other creative formats to explore theological ideas.

You'll also have the opportunity to learn Biblical Hebrew and Greek.

Come and be part of a dynamic, supportive community helping to shape the future of understanding between cultures.

Your department

Find out more about what it’s like to study in the Department of Theology and Religious Studies.


"Don’t presume that you will be learning purely about the past, you can walk out of a lecture and see something you've learned applied in society, in real time."

Francis Adam, Theology and Religious Studies BA

Find out more about what Francis thinks about studying at Nottingham

Why choose this course?

Diverse curriculum

Lecturers with international reputations in the Christian, Muslim, Jewish and atheist traditions

Career skills

Internship and work placement opportunities and skills building.

Approachable staff

Over 90% of students positive about being able to contact staff when they need to

Interfaith chaplaincy

Explore your and others' faith in a supportive setting

Personal development

Study abroad and volunteering opportunities


Opportunities to study modules from other subjects

Entry requirements

All candidates are considered on an individual basis and we accept a broad range of qualifications. The entrance requirements below apply to 2023 entry.

UK entry requirements
A level ABB

Please note: Applicants whose backgrounds or personal circumstances have impacted their academic performance may receive a reduced offer. Please see our contextual admissions policy for more information.

IB score 32

Extended Project Qualification (EPQ)

If you have already achieved your EPQ at Grade A you will automatically be offered one grade lower in a non-mandatory A level subject.

If you are still studying for your EPQ you will receive the standard course offer, with a condition of one grade lower in a non-mandatory A level subject if you achieve an A grade in your EPQ.

Foundation progression options

If you have faced educational barriers and are predicted BCC at A Level, you may be eligible for our Foundation Year. You may progress to a range of direct entry degrees in the arts and humanities.

Mature Students

At the University of Nottingham, we have a valuable community of mature students and we appreciate their contribution to the wider student population. You can find lots of useful information on the mature students webpage.

Learning and assessment

How you will learn

Different topics suit different teaching methods. Depending on the modules you choose you may get involved in presentations to your peers, different forms of group work, be asked to develop a creative artwork or take part in an online quiz.

We record all of our lectures. This allows you to watch important points again, review your notes and catch up if a personal situation means you can't attend in person.

Quality teaching

Over 90% of our students think staff are good at explaining things in the latest National Student Survey

Supportive environment

If you have worries about your work we won't wait for them to become problems. You'll have a personal tutor who will proactively review your academic progress and help find solutions to any issues.

"The personal tutoring role is important for building a sense of community between staff and students - we're not just distant lecturers talking at you in a classroom; we're here to help you grow and develop into your degree programme and beyond."

Dr Tim Hutchings, personal tutor


We asked all our Theology and Religious Studies students what they thought about our staff. In the anonymous survey 100% said they were satisfied with the learning support and communication with tutors - a great show of support for our approach!

Teaching methods

  • Lectures
  • Seminars
  • Tutorials
  • Placements

How you will be assessed

A combination of essays and exams are the norm for most modules. Weekly reading summaries, presentations, online quizzes and tests, podcasts and creative work such as video and art may also be used by individual lecturers.

Assessment methods

  • Dissertation
  • Essay
  • In-class test
  • Portfolio (written/digital)
  • Presentation
  • Reflective review
  • Written exam

Contact time and study hours

The minimum scheduled contact time you will have is:

  • Year one - at least 12 hours
  • Year two - at least 10 hours
  • Year three - at least 8 hours

Weekly tutorial support and the accredited Nottingham Advantage Award provide even more learning opportunities, on top of these scheduled hours.

Your lecturers are available outside your scheduled contact time to discuss issues and develop your understanding. This can be in person or online.

As well as your timetabled sessions you’ll carry out extensive self-study such as course reading and seminar preparation. As a guide 20 credits (a typical module) is about 200 hours of work (combined teaching and self-study).

Class sizes vary. A popular lecture may have up to 70 students in it while a specialised seminar may only contain 10.

Your lecturers will usually be from our academic staff all of whom are internationally recognised in their fields.

Study abroad

Pre-pandemic, over 1,500 of our students a year benefitted from living and learning in a different culture. As borders re-open we'll once again be enabling and encouraging our students to take advantage of the opportunities Nottingham's position as a global university brings.

You've a range of options - from short summer schools, a single semester to a whole year abroad.

We've a dedicated team to help you with the practicalities and many opportunities mean you pay reduced fees.

If you need support for your language skills before you go our Language Centre will have resources to help.

Explore the university-wide opportunities


On your course

Become 'workplace-ready' with our Work Placement module. It helps you develop skills and experience that allow you to stand out to potential employers.

Internships, placements and other work experience

Our reputation means we can work with top employers to offer high quality internships and work experience placements. Check out our Careers and Employability Service for what’s on offer.

Nottingham Advantage Award

Boost your employability with a range of employer-led projects and career development opportunities through the Nottingham Advantage Award.

“Having formal recognition for all the things I was doing outside of my academic work helped validate my experiences with the interviewers.” Hannah Edmondson, Theology and Religious Studies BA

Read Hannah’s blog about how the Nottingham Advantage Award gave her an edge with employers

Study Abroad and the Year in Industry are subject to students meeting minimum academic requirements. Opportunities may change at any time for a number of reasons, including curriculum developments, changes to arrangements with partner universities, travel restrictions or other circumstances outside of the university’s control. Every effort will be made to update information as quickly as possible should a change occur.

Study with us

Dr Jon Hoover gives a quick introduction to the department.


We know everyone comes from a variety of backgrounds and experiences so your first year ensures you have the necessary skills and knowledge to thrive and helps you build relationships with your fellow students.

You'll take a series of core and optional modules:

  • core modules - an introduction to Christian, Jewish and Muslim philosophy and theology covering history, society and culture
  • optional modules - explore your own personal interests

Watch some of our team introduce their modules in under 90 seconds.

 "The highlight for me was being able to create my own degree. There was so much more freedom of choice, so I could really pick the things I loved." - Jodi Kiang, Theology and Philosophy BA. Find out more about Jodi's time at Nottingham.

Core modules

Big Questions in Theology and Religious Studies

An introduction to the subject of theology and religious studies.

We'll identify several ‘big’ theological questions asked within the discipline, and assess the ways in which such questions have been grappled with in the past and continue to be grappled with in the present.

Attention will be paid to the skills and strategies you'll need in order to engage with such questions as you progress through your degree.

This module is worth 10 credits.

Christianity and the Challenge of Modernity

This module introduces students to the development of Western Christian theology, both Protestant and Catholic, from the Enlightenment to the present.

It surveys the challenges posed to Christian faith by modernity and a range of theological responses to these challenges.

It also introduces modern Christian approaches to ethics.

Watch Dr Michael Burdett give an overview of this module in less that 90 seconds.


This module is worth 10 credits.

Interpreting Islam

This module examines the narrative and textual foundations of the Islamic tradition including the Qur'an, the prophetic tradition and the life of the Prophet Muhammad. You’ll also look at the development and structure of Islamic society, law, doctrine and spirituality through the classical period, and Muslim responses to challenges posed by modernity including questions of gender and the nation state.

This module is worth 10 credits.

Interpreting Judaism

This module will introduce Judaism in the period from its formation to modernity. We will study major texts of Second Temple and Late Antique Judaism, the developments of medieval Jewish culture under Islamic and Christian rule, and key topics in early modern and contemporary Judaism. Special emphasis will be given to the textual strategies of Jewish readings of the Bible, to the continuing important of the Temple as a central religious symbol, and to the impact of the foundation of the state of Israel. The module will give students an overview of Judaism as a diverse tradition that has always engaged its Roman, Christian, Persian, Muslim and modern Western surroundings.

This module is worth 10 credits.

The Bible in Music, Art and Literature

The Bible is a perennial bestseller and its influence on Western culture is unparalleled. This influence is not always obvious though, nor limited to the 'religious sphere'. In the Arts - whether Bach or The Beatles, Michelangelo or Monty Python - the use of the Bible is extremely varied. This module explores the ways the Bible is drawn upon in art, music and literature ranging from ancient Jewish synagogue mosaics and early Christian iconography, to contemporary - secular - films and music. Students are encouraged not only to engage with case studies of works of art which demonstrate the use and influence of the Bible, but also to consider critically the way in which art, music and literature - both 'religious' and 'secular' - function as biblical interpretations, and as part of the Bible's 'reception-history'. The module is taught by a variety of theologians in the department specialising in different areas of the Bible's reception. Introductory contributions on the influence of the Bible on, and through, a range of authors, musicians and artists can be seen in the Department of Theology and Religious Studies' Bibledex video project.

Religion, Media and Ethics

We live in a media environment, surrounded by social media, videogames, TV, movies, 24-hour news and more.

The media teach us what to think about each other, how to talk to each other, and who we want to be.

This course invites us to think more critically and imaginatively about the media.

Together we will:

  • explore how the media portrays religion, and ask why stereotypes persist
  • see how the media challenges religion, and provokes new religious creativity
  • ask what the big ideas of religious ethics could teach us about how to use media more wisely
  • start to learn the key skills we need to be more effective media communicators

Watch Dr Tim Hutchings give an overview of this module in just 80 seconds.

Reading World Religions

Introduces religious traditions from Africa and Asia, including Traditional African Religion, Sikhism, Hinduism, Buddhism and Daoism.

This module is worth 10 credits.

Philosophy for Theologians

This module will provide an overview of the most important philosophical ideas, theories, and arguments that are of special interest to students of theology. The module will begin with the Greek 'natural theology' of the pre-Socratic thinkers and end with the post-modern 'turn to religion' of Emmanuel Levinas and Jacques Derrida. 

This module is worth 10 credits.

Optional modules

Interpreting the Hebrew Bible

This module is an introduction to the literature, history and interpretation of the Hebrew Bible, also known as the Old Testament or Tanakh.

Attention will be paid to the biblical text as history, as literature and as scripture in the Jewish and Christian traditions, both in general and with particular reference to specific texts.

Watch Dr Cat Quine explain why she thinks teaching biblical studies is far from boring.


This module is worth 10 credits.

Interpreting the New Testament

This module will cover the following themes: the canon and text of the New Testament; the Roman, Greek and Jewish background to the New Testament; source, form and redaction criticism of the Synoptic Gospels; the historicity of the Synoptic Gospels and Acts, and the authenticity of Paul's letters.

This module is worth 10 credits.

Introduction to Biblical Hebrew A
This is an introduction to the grammar, syntax and vocabulary of the Hebrew language, as found in the Hebrew Bible; no previous knowledge of the language is assumed.

This module will investigate the phenomenon of atheism, both traditional and ‘old’ and the cultural phenomenon sometimes referred to as ‘new atheism, place it in a broader historical and intellectual context. Where does it come from? What are the sources and roots of contemporary atheism? How can we explain the transition in Western society from belief as norm to agnosticism or atheism as the majority position? What are the most convincing arguments for atheism, and what are its most radical and interesting versions? The module will include examination of recent writers (e.g. Dawkins, Dennett, Hitchens), atheists of the Enlightenment, and thinkers such as Nietzsche and Feuerbach. Secularization and various ways in which scholars have tried to understand it will be explored.

Watch Dr Conor Cunningham give an overview of this module in under 90 seconds.

You have the option to take modules outside of the Department - explore a topic from a different angle or pursue another interest.

Some of the popular modules our students take include:

  • An introduction to metaethics
  • Criminology: Understanding Crime and Victimisation
  • Comparative world pre-history

Year structure

You will take 120 credits-worth of modules split as follows:

  • Core modules - 80 credits
  • Optional theology modules - 10-40 credits
  • Optional modules in other subjects - 0-30 credits

You must pass year one but it does not count towards your final degree classification.

The above is a sample of the typical modules we offer but is not intended to be construed and/or relied upon as a definitive list of the modules that will be available in any given year. Modules (including methods of assessment) may change or be updated, or modules may be cancelled, over the duration of the course due to a number of reasons such as curriculum developments or staffing changes. Please refer to the module catalogue for information on available modules. This content was last updated on Wednesday 21 December 2022.

Your choice increases with a wider range and availability of optional modules.

The Work Placement module allows you to gain workplace skills and develop your CV.

Core modules

Religion in Britain: Interfaith Encounters in a Secular Age

Explore the landscape of religions in modern British society, with particular emphasis on:

  • Christianity
  • Judaism
  • Islam
  • secularism
  • nonreligion

You'll be introduced to leading theories of the sociological study of religion, including models for interfaith contact and dialogue, and examine how these theories and approaches developed.

Through groupwork you'll research an interfaith topic for a class presentation, learning to communicate your ideas to a supportive audience.

This module is worth 20 credits.

Religion and Culture

Explore the relationship between religion, culture and ethics.

This is a new module still under development.

Optional modules

The Philosophy of Religion

In this module you’ll explore significant problems in the philosophy of religion, such as the credibility of the existence of God, the relation between religion and science, the relation between religion and morality, the problem of evil, and the possibility of an after-life. There will also be discussion of significant themes, such as the nature of being, of faith, of religious experience, of religious language, and of religious love.  This module is taught through four hours of lecture and an hour-long seminar weekly.

Watch Dr Conor Cunningham give an overview of this video in just over 60 seconds.

Islamic Theology and Philosophy

This module examines how Muslims have addressed fundamental theological and philosophical questions relating to their faith. These questions concern the foundations of religious knowledge and authority, God's unity and attributes, God's relationship to the world, divine determinism and human freedom, prophecy, and eschatology. Key figures will include the rationalist Mu'tazili and Ash'ari theologians, the philosophers Ibn Sina (Avicenna) and Ibn Rushd (Averroes), and the influential medieval intellectuals al-Ghazali, Ibn al-'Arabi, and Ibn Taymiyya. Selections from primary sources will be read in translation, and special attention will be given to the integration of late antique philosophical traditions into Islamic theology.

Watch Dr Jon Hoover give an overview of this module in just 60 seconds.

Women and Warfare in the Hebrew Bible

Explore a range of historical, ethical, and theological issues relating to women and warfare in the Hebrew Bible and ancient Israel.

You'll start by looking at the Hebrew Bible's portrayals of women and the feminine, including:

  • goddesses
  • biblical queens
  • the role of women in the community.

Next, you'll move on to warfare, considering, for example:

  • the relationship between military victory and righteousness in the Bible
  • the theological implications of YHWH being a god who fights in battle
  • how Judah's greatest ever military defeat became the defining point of its theology.

Watch Dr Cat Quine give and overview of this module in less than 100 seconds.

Jewish Theology and Philosophy from Philo to Kabbalah

The module provides an overview of the most important theological and philosophical ideas, theories and arguments that Jewish thought developed from the Hellenistic period of Philo of Alexandria to the postmodern times of Emmanuel Levinas. The method of instruction will combine historical and speculative approaches, using the perspective of the 'history of ideas'. 

The Theology of Paul

Explore the theology of Paul as found in the seven letters that are generally considered to be written by him (Romans, 1 and 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Philippians, 1 Thessalonians, Philemon).

The major themes explored are:

  • law
  • reconciliation
  • justification
  • grace
  • faith
  • sacrifice
  • word of God
  • Christology
  • Israel
  • the church
  • ethics
  • the ‘last things’.

Watch Professor Richard Bell give an overview of this module in less than 60 seconds.

School of Humanities Work Placement

This module embeds employability into the curriculum, giving students direct experience of a workplace, developing hard and soft skills (both subject-specific and beyond).

The module involves part-time professional placement (1 day a week for 6 weeks or equivalent) in an external organisation. It is aimed at developing hands-on work experience and employability skills in a workplace relevant to Arts/Humanities graduates.

Lectures, seminars and workshops will be organised across the School, with input by the Careers team to provide learning support/‘scaffolding’.

This module is worth 20 credits.

Year structure

You'll take 120 credits worth of modules split as follows:

  • core modules - 40 credits
  • optional modules - 60-80 credits
  • optional modules in other subjects - 0-20 credits

You must pass year two which counts approximately one third towards your final degree classification.

The above is a sample of the typical modules we offer but is not intended to be construed and/or relied upon as a definitive list of the modules that will be available in any given year. Modules (including methods of assessment) may change or be updated, or modules may be cancelled, over the duration of the course due to a number of reasons such as curriculum developments or staffing changes. Please refer to the module catalogue for information on available modules. This content was last updated on

Your dissertation enables you to write an in-depth piece on a subject of your choosing, supported by a member of staff.

The rest of your year is built from optional modules based on the latest research interests of our academics.

Core module


You will undertake an extended piece of investigative and synthesising work on a subject of particular interest and produce a final written dissertation of 8000 words.

This will:

  • provide practice in researching a topic independently and in depth
  • involve use of a range of primary and/or secondary information sources
  • create coherent and sustained analysis and argument in both writing and speech.

Optional modules

Revolutions in 20th Century Christian Theology: Ressourcement and the Radicalness of Orthodoxy

Examining the major theologians of the last century this module will ask – what is nature, and what is grace? Likewise, what is natural and what is supernatural? This module will explore how theologians (Catholic, Protestant, and Orthodox) have articulated this division and the many profound consequences that have arisen from such attempts This module will trace the development of various heated debates that tackled the above questions and in so doing influenced the shape of twentieth century theology, the idea of secularism, the relation between philosophy and theology, and lastly, between theology and science. 

Muslims and Others: Ethics, Theology, and History

Examine the ethical, theological, and historical aspects of Muslim interaction with non-Muslims.

You will:

  • assess Qur’anic attitudes to religious others
  • look at a spectrum of Muslim ethical approaches to social relations with non-Muslims
  • analyse theological exchanges with Christians and Jews
  • explore Muslim theologies of other religions and the eternal destiny of non-Muslims
  • examine shifts in Muslim relations with Christians, Jews and Yazidis in response to modernity and the rise of western power.

Students will read the novel The Qadi and the Fortune Teller set in 19th century Lebanon as a case study in legal, political, and religious relations between Sunnis, Shi‘is, Druze, Christians, and Jews.

The Life and Teaching of Jesus
This module provides a historical introduction to the life of Jesus. It will involve a critical evaluation of the relevant sources for Jesus’ life, an overview of developments in the search for the historical Jesus, and a discussion of the perceived tensions between the Jesus of history and the Christ of faith.
Modern Jewish Thought
This module will present modern Jewish thought from a theologicophilosophical perspective as an interesting alternative to both Christian and secular models of thinking. Modern Jewish thought emerges from 'the crisis of tradition' (Gershom Scholem) which it tries to resolve in many different ways: either intrinsic to Judaism itself (e.g. Lurianic Kabbalah) or in dialogue with Western philosophy (from Spinoza to Derrida). The module will emphasize the creative impact of Jewish thinkers on the development of modernity by showing the various ways in which these thinkers renegotiate and redefine the most crucial opposition between Athens and Jerusalem, or, in their own rendering, between Yaphet and Shem. Target students: Level 3 Single and Joint Honours Theology and Religious Studies students, exchange and subsidiary students.
Eco-theologies of Love: Christian Theology and Climate Change

Explore concepts like love, hope, sin, forgiveness, and glory across the Christian theological tradition and probe their relevance for contemporary conversations around climate change.

Buddhism and the World

We'll bring together philosophical, historical and sociological approaches to Buddhism.

You'll learn about Buddhism as a philosophical and religious tradition – or set of traditions – with particular attention to the relation of Buddhist doctrines and teachings to the contemporary world.

You will also learn about Buddhism as a living community, with particular attention to Buddhist life and practice.

Year structure

You'll take 120 credits worth of modules split as follows:

  • core modules - 40 credits
  • optional modules - 80 credits

You must pass year three which counts two thirds towards your final degree classification.

The above is a sample of the typical modules we offer but is not intended to be construed and/or relied upon as a definitive list of the modules that will be available in any given year. Modules (including methods of assessment) may change or be updated, or modules may be cancelled, over the duration of the course due to a number of reasons such as curriculum developments or staffing changes. Please refer to the module catalogue for information on available modules. This content was last updated on

As a global university we're keen to offer you the opportunity to develop your modern language skills.

Language modules can be integrated into your degree and used towards your required credits.

You can take language modules because it or complements your degree (for example, reading a philosopher in their original language), helps your career plans or just for pleasure!

We cater for all levels - from complete beginners upwards.

There are currently nine language options available.

Check out the Language Centre for more information

Fees and funding

UK students

Per year

International students

Per year

*For full details including fees for part-time students and reduced fees during your time studying abroad or on placement (where applicable), see our fees page.

If you are a student from the EU, EEA or Switzerland, you may be asked to complete a fee status questionnaire and your answers will be assessed using guidance issued by the UK Council for International Student Affairs (UKCISA) .

Additional costs

All students will need at least one device to approve security access requests via Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA). We also recommend students have a suitable laptop to work both on and off-campus. For more information, please check the equipment advice.

Essential course materials are supplied.


You'll be able to access most of the books you’ll need through our libraries, though you may wish to buy your own copies of core texts.

A limited number of modules have compulsory texts which you are required to buy.

We recommend that you budget £100 per year for books, but this figure will vary according to which modules you take.

The Blackwell's bookshop on campus offers a year-round price match against any of the main retailers (for example Amazon, Waterstones, WH Smith). You can often buy second-hand copies of textbooks through them as students from previous years sell their copies back to the bookshop.

Volunteering and placements

For volunteering and placements, such as work experience and teaching in schools, you will need to pay for transport and refreshments.

Scholarships and bursaries

Faculty of Arts Alumni Scholarships

Our Alumni Scholarships provide support with essential living costs to eligible students. Find out more about eligibility and how to apply.

University of Nottingham bursaries and scholarships

The University offers a wide range of funds that can provide you with an additional source of non-repayable financial help. See our bursaries and scholarships page for what's available.

Home students*

Over one third of our UK students receive our means-tested core bursary, worth up to £1,000 a year. Full details can be found on our financial support pages.

* A 'home' student is one who meets certain UK residence criteria. These are the same criteria as apply to eligibility for home funding from Student Finance.

International students

We offer a range of international undergraduate scholarships for high-achieving international scholars who can put their Nottingham degree to great use in their careers.

International scholarships


The degree prepares you for a wide range of potential careers.

You'll develop key professional skills such as how to:

  • understand and analyse others' ideas and beliefs, both spoken and texts
  • sift evidence and formulate arguments
  • think carefully and clearly
  • make reasoned decisions
  • develop sensitivity to cultural and religious diversity
  • communicate your ideas with confidence
  • engage intelligently and critically with the world in all its depth and complexity

The variety of skills you learn means your career is:

  • resilient - as the nature of work changes you can adapt
  • flexible - you can choose across different sectors as you develop and grow and opportunities arise

Recent graduates are currently working in areas such as:

  • law, public policy, strategy and consulting
  • banking and finance
  • church ministry
  • teaching
  • creative and cultural arts
  • journalism, advertising and communications
  • psychology and counselling

Find out more about opportunities for our theology and religious studies students.

Our graduates

Find out how two of our recent graduates, Jodi and Cat, have used their degrees to build careers.

Key fact

Only 14% of employers state that specific degree subjects are a selection criterion. (Institute of Student Employers recruitment survey 2019)

Average starting salary and career progression

68.2% of undergraduates from the Department of Theology and Religious Studies secured graduate level employment or further study within 15 months of graduation.*

*HESA Graduate Outcomes 2019/20 data published in 2022. The Graduate Outcomes % is derived using The Guardian University Guide methodology.

Studying for a degree at the University of Nottingham will provide you with the type of skills and experiences that will prove invaluable in any career, whichever direction you decide to take.

Throughout your time with us, our Careers and Employability Service can work with you to improve your employability skills even further; assisting with job or course applications, searching for appropriate work experience placements and hosting events to bring you closer to a wide range of prospective employers.

Have a look at our careers page for an overview of all the employability support and opportunities that we provide to current students.

The University of Nottingham is consistently named as one of the most targeted universities by Britain’s leading graduate employers (Ranked in the top ten in The Graduate Market in 2013-2020, High Fliers Research).

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" The Theology Department is fantastic, friendly and so much fun to be part of. Everybody, from undergraduates to the postgraduate students and staff, cares for and gets to know one another - we are a family! "
Elena Hill, BA Theology and Religious Studies

Related courses

Important information

This online prospectus has been drafted in advance of the academic year to which it applies. Every effort has been made to ensure that the information is accurate at the time of publishing, but changes (for example to course content) are likely to occur given the interval between publishing and commencement of the course. It is therefore very important to check this website for any updates before you apply for the course where there has been an interval between you reading this website and applying.