Linguistic Profiling
for Professionals

The language of hate crime

Professor Louise Mullany has been leading the LiPP team’s research into the language of hate crime on the street, online and in other public spaces since 2016.   

Misogyny comic header


A key part of this work involves investigating the language of 'misogyny' as a hate crime, following Nottinghamshire Police's decision to become the first force in the country to make misogyny a recognised hate crime in April 2016. LiPP organised a policy event at the House of Commons in October 2016 as part of Nottingham in Parliament Day, including a panel on the language of misogyny as a hate crime with Stella Creasy MP and Chief Constable Susannah Fish OBE, QPM. 

Misogyny Hate Crime Evaluation Report

Professor Mullany has worked in collaboration with Dr. Loretta Trickett at Nottingham Law School, Nottingham Trent University, on a Research Evaluation Report, commissioned by the Office of the Nottinghamshire Police and Crime Commissioner and Nottingham Women's Centre to assess the impact of Nottinghamshire Police's change in policy. 



University of Nottingham logo


The evaluation report found that people in Nottinghamshire will not tolerate misogyny hate crime and a policy to record misogyny hate crimes introduced in 2016 by Nottinghamshire Police is already shifting the attitudes of both victims and potential perpetrators. Over 87% of people surveyed thought a policy change in 2016 to make misogyny a hate crime in Nottinghamshire, was a good idea. 

This work fed into the National Police Chiefs’ Council and the Women and Equalities Select Committee review of street harassment, contributing to proposed amendments to the Upskirting Bill and the government tasking the Law Commission with reviewing hate crime laws in 2019.  


The Law Commission’s consultation paper on hate crime laws, published in September 2020, cites Professor Mullany and Dr Trickett’s research in recommending that gender or sex should become a protected characteristic for the purposes of hate crime law.


Man answering phone Text says Susie  It happened again

Educational resources

A key recommendation of the Misogyny Hate Crime Evaluation Report was to use educational campaigns, which actively and positively engage boys and men, to change negative attitudes and behaviours that perpetuate Misogyny Hate Crime. 

Dawn of the Unread was commissioned to produce a comic book, intended to be the first of several such educational tools.

Click here to read more about the comic


  Our research in the press

The Conversation: Misogyny hate crime: new research reveals true scale of issue

The Law Society Gazette: Misogyny as hate crime

The Guardian: UK police chiefs urged to adopt harassment of women as hate crime

 BBC News: Misogyny hate crime in Nottinghamshire gives 'shocking' results

Education Publishing blog: Ending sexual abuse in universities



Linguistic Profiling for Professionals

Centre for Research in Applied Linguistics
The University of Nottingham
Nottingham, NG7 2RD

telephone:+44 (0) 115 748 6360
fax: +44 (0) 115 951 5924