Solid and Liquid surfaces in ultra-high vacuum. Surface techniques generally, low energy electron diffraction (LEED), ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARUPS or ARPES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), work function measurements, temperature programmed desorption (TPD). Ultra-high vacuum technology. Surface reactivity and kinetics. Developing new methods involving "line of sight mass spectrometry" techniques, imaging gas analysers and imaging mass spectrometry. Surface structure research. Developing and using synchrotron based methods, particularly X-ray Standing Wave (XSW) analysis, Normal Incidence X-ray Standing Wave Analysis (NIXSW), variable period X-ray standing wave analysis (VPXSW) and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS). Interface systems studied include Solid/Liquid and Liquid/Gas interfaces. Adsorption/absorption of solute molecules at these surfaces. Self assembly at surfaces. Gas capture of CO2, SO2 and others by ionic liquids. Solid surfaces include metal single crystal surfaces such as: Cu(111), Cu(110), Cu(100), Au(111), Au(110), Ni(111), Ni(100), Al(100), Cr(100) and semiconductor surfaces such as Si(100), InSb(001). Adsorbates include small molecules (water, acetone,methanol, ethanol, SO2, etc.), halogens (Cl2, Br2, I2), halocarbons (CCl4, CHCl3, dichoroethane, CF3I, etc.), thiols and disulfides (CH3SH, CH3SSCH3 and others). Ionic liquids used to form liquid interfaces include imidazoliums, pyrrolidiniums, phosphoniums and other cations paired with tetrafluoroborate, hexafluorophosphate, bi[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]-imide, and other anions.
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